The British Moralists and the Internal 'Ought': 1640-1740
This book is a major work in the history of ethics, and provides the first study of early modern British philosophy in several decades. Professor Darwall discerns two distinct traditions feeding into the moral philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the one hand, there is the empirical, naturalist tradition, comprising Hobbes, Locke, Cumberland, Hutcheson, and Hume, which argues that obligation is the practical force that empirical discoveries acquire in the process of deliberation. On the other hand, there is the group including Cudworth, Shaftesbury, Butler, and in some moments Locke, which views obligation as inconceivable without autonomy and which seeks to develop a theory of the will as self-determining.
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The British moralists inventing internalism
Culverwell and Locke classical and modern natural law
Hobbes ethics as consequences from the passions of men
Cumberland obligation naturalized
Cudworth obligation and selfdetermining moral agency
Locke autonomy and obligation in the revised Essay
Shaftesbury authority and authorship
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action affections approves argues argument authority of conscience autono autonomist internalism autonomous believes benevolence British moralists Butler calm Cambridge Cambridge Platonists capacity claim conception concerning conclusive motive conduct conscience's consists contract covenant Cudworth Culverwell Culverwell's Cumberland deliberation derives desire determine dictates distinctive edition empirical naturalist epistemology Essay eternal law ethics evil fact faculty Francis Hutcheson God's Hobbes Hobbes's hold Hume Hume's Hutcheson idea interest internalist intrinsic John Locke Kant latter law of nature Leviathan liberty Locke Locke's metaphysical mind moral agents moral obligation moral philosophy moral psychology Moral Realism moral sense natural law necessary normative notion object passage passions person pleasure practical judgment practical reason principle Ralph Cudworth rational agents rational motive reflection regulate relation requires Richard Cumberland Richard Tuck rules of justice says self-determination self-love Sermons Shaftesbury superior theory thesis thing thinks thought tion Treatise understanding University Press violating virtue virtuous