The Decline of Transit: Urban Transportation in German and U.S. Cities, 1900-1970
Automobiles dominate transportation today in most American cities. After World War II, urban planners embraced highway transportation as the solution to urban congestion, while mass transit was shunned as outmoded and appropriate only for older, densely populated cities. Yet the prolonged energy crisis, beginning in 1973, shattered most previously held attitudes about the role of mass transit, and it was now promoted as central to energy efficiency and rational land use. If mass transit is now possible and even desirable in new, auto-oriented cities - Los Angeles, Frankfurt, Tokyo - why did it decline in the first place? In examining the historical conditions that led to the current crisis of urban transportation, the book offers an explanation of past urban and economic policy failures. The Decline of Transit will be essential reading for urban planners, politicians, economists, historians, and all others interested in the state of urban transportation today.
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areas Association auto-oil-rubber autobahn automobile industry Burnham Plan buses capital capital accumulation central changes Chicago Chicago Transit Authority city council city's coalition commercial Commission Committee corporate power costs decentralization dominated expansion fare fascism federal financing fiscal Frankfurt German cities groups growth highway construction highway lobby I. G. Farben increased interests investment labor land manufacturing mass transit Mayor mobile motorization National City Lines Nazi nomic ordinances organizations percent period political population portation promoted public ownership public transit public transportation rail transit Reich residential role routes sector settlement social spatial strategy streetcar structure subsidization suburban subway Tertiary employment tion traction traffic trans transit decline transit operating transit ridership transit service transit systems transportation planning transportation policy U.S. cities United urban system urban transportation Urbanization index variable workers World War II