Imaging and Image Analysis Applications for Plastics
The broad collection of techniques gathered in this book help illustrate material/process/property relationships for a wide selection of materials and processes in the plastics industry. With the recent increases in computing power and scope, as well as advances in software engineering, imaging has already become a universal tool. Image processing and image analysis have become common expressions are widely recognized within the scientific community.
The imaging techniques employed range from visible optical methods to scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray, thermal wave infrared and atomic force microscopy. Image analysis is used to monitor/ characterize a variety of processes.
Processes included within this book are: extrusion, injection molding, foam production, film manufacture, compression molding, blow molding, vulcanization, melt spinning, reactive blending, welding, conveying, composite manufacture, compounding, and thermosetting.
Imaging techniques are also employed to characterize/quantify a number of important material properties. These include: fiber orientation distribution, homogeneity of mixing, the rate of spherulites growth, polymer crystallization rate, melt flow index, pore size and shape in foam, cell density in foam, void content, particle analysis in polymer blends, morphology, interparticle distance, fiber diameter, fatigue crack, crazing, scratching, surface roughness, fiber-length distribution, nucleation, oil penetration, peel adhesion, chemical resistance, droplet-fiber transition, electrical conductivity, dispersion and impurity content.
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Chapter 3 Novel Processing and Performance of Aligned Discontinuous Fiber Polymer Composites
Chapter 4 Characterization of Kneading Block Performance in CoRotating Twin Screw Extruders
Chapter 5 A Quantitative Description of the Effects of Molecular Weight and Atactic Level on the Spherulite Growth Rate of ZieglerNatta Isotactic P...
Chapter 6 Method to Evaluate the Homogenization of Bimodal Polyethylene in a CoRotating Twin Screw Extruder
Chapter 7 Miscibility and CoContinuous Morphology of PolypropylenePolyethylene Blends
Chapter 19 CO2Blown PETG Foams
Chapter 20 Tear Strength Enhancement Mechanisms in TPO Films
Chapter 21 Morphological Study of Fatigue Induced Damage in Semicrystalline Polymers
Chapter 22 The Effect of Several Kinds of Oils on the Oil Resistance Behavior of Polystyrenic Thermoplastic Vulcanizate
Chapter 23 Visualization of Polymer Melt Convergent Flows in Extrusion
Chapter 24 Evaluation of the Constrained Blister Test for Measurement of an Intrinsic Adhesion
Chapter 25 Fractal Analysis and Radiographic Inspection of Microwave Welded HDPE Bars
Chapter 26 Application of Thermography for the Optimization of the Blow Molding Process
Chapter 8 Flow Visualization for Extensional Viscosity Assessment
Effect of the Elastomer Viscosity on Impact Properties
Morphological Analysis of a HDPEPDMS System
Chapter 11 The in situ Compatibilization of HDPEPET Blends
Chapter 12 Evaluation of Process Aids for Controlling Surface Roughness of Extruded LLDPE
Nanoscratching by Atomic Force Microscope
Chapter 14 Study of the Morphology and the Tensile Mechanical Properties of Biaxially Oriented PETPP Blends
Chapter 15 Improved Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Laminar Polymer Blends
Chapter 16 Relative Magnetic Permeability of Injection Molded Composites as Affected by the Flow Induced Orientation of Ferromagnetic Particles
Compression Versus Injection Molding
Chapter 18 Polyetherimide EpoxyBased Prepreg Systems with Variable Temperature Cure Capability
Chapter 27 The Use of Video and the Development of Solids Conveying Theory
Chapter 28 Microcellular PET Foams Produced by the Solid State Process
Chapter 29 Thermal Wave Imaging of Propagating Cracks in Polypropylene and a Thermoplastic Olefin
A Physical Model for Mathematical Description
Chapter 31 Morphology and Rheology Sensors for InLine and OnLine Microstructure Monitoring in Compounding
Chapter 32 A New OnLine Technique for Morphology Analysis and Residence Time Measurement in a TwinScrew Extruder
Chapter 33 ControlledOrder Thermosets for Electronic Packaging
Chapter 34 Fatigue Fracture in Polypropylene with Different Spherulitic Sizes
Chapter 35BrittleDuctile Transition of PPRubberFiller Hybrids
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adhesion agglomerates alignment ANTEC ASTM average behavior blends blister blow molding clearcoat Coatings compatibilizer composites crazes crystallization cure decrease density diameter dispersed phase effect elastomer energy epoxy EXPERIMENTAL extensional extensional viscosity extruder fiber length fiber orientation film foaming fractal dimension fracture geometry glass fiber glass transition temperature growth rate HDPE image analysis increase injection molded interface kneading blocks LDPE LLDPE material matrix measured mechanical properties melt micrographs microtome minor phase mixing modulus morphology nanoscratches nylon observed obtained optical parameters parison particles PEI content percent drag flow permeability PETG plastic polyethylene polymer polypropylene prepreg pressure process aids resin rheology samples scratch SEBS shear rate shown in Figure shows spacer height SPE ANTEC specimens spherulites stress surface roughness technique temperature tensile thermal thermoplastic thickness tion twin screw extruder values viscoelastic viscosity viscosity ratio volume fraction weld zone