The Ecozones of the World: The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 12, 2005 - Science - 252 pages

Recent studies have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the earth's ecosystem. This abundantly illustrated book provides a fundamental introduction to the ecological zones of the geosphere. Nine terrestrial ecozones have been distinguished and described in individual chapters with respect to: distribution, climate, relief/hydrology, soil vegetation/animal lifeand land use. The first chapter provides the reader with a general introduction to each subject area.

The second edition is a competely revised and updated version. A large number of new Anglo-American ecological studies are included. The book also includes more than 70 new figures and tables and detailed maps on global agricultural regions and soil classification. Another new feature is the discussion of the correlation between northern ecosystems and the carbon dioxide balance in the global atmosphere.

 

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Contents

Distribution
6
Climate
11
The growing season and conditions for plant growth
14
Relief and drainage
17
Soils
20
Soil water budget
23
Soil units and soil zones
26
Vegetation and animals
35
Extensive pasture economy
136
Synoptic diagram for steppes
138
Subtropics with winter rain
141
Climate
142
Relief and drainage
143
Vegetation and animals
144
Adaptation to summer drought
146
Animals
148

Ecosystem model of ecozone
38
Available supply of organic matter in the ecosystem
40
Primary production from plant stands
42
Production capacity of the worlds plant cover
43
Consumption by animals and secondary production
48
Waste and decomposition
49
Turnover of minerals
51
Land use
55
The individual ecozones
60
Polar subpolar zone
63
Climate
64
Annual temperature changes in the soil and air layer next to the soil
65
Summer solar radiation and heat budget
67
Relief and drainage in periglacial areas
68
Soils
72
Vegetation and fauna in the tundra and polar deserts
73
Distribution of vegetation
74
Biomass and primary production
75
Animals and animal feed
76
Decomposition and turnover of minerals
77
Model of a tundra ecosystem
78
Land use
80
Synoptic diagram for the tundra
81
Boreal zone
83
Climate
84
Relief and drainage
87
Soils
89
Vegetation and animals
91
Peat bogs
92
Forest tundra polar and forest tree lines
93
Biomass and primary production
94
Boreal coniferous forest ecosystems
98
Synoptic diagram for the Boreal zone
100
Temperate midlatitudes
102
Relief and drainage
105
Soils
107
Vegetation and animals
108
Seasonality in deciduous forests
109
Water budget in forests
111
Biomass and primary production growth and litter production
112
Mineral budget in midlatitude deciduous broadleaf and boreal coniferous forests
113
Model of an ecosystem of a deciduous forest
118
Synoptic diagram for the Temperate midlatitudes
121
Dry midlatitudes
123
Climate
124
Relief and drainage
125
Halomorphic soils
128
Types of steppes
129
Lifeform and adaptation to winter cold and summer drought
130
Biomass primary production and decomposition
131
Available supply and turnover of minerals
134
Biomass and primary production
150
Land Use
152
Synoptic diagram for the Subtropics with winter rain
154
Subtropics with yearround rain
156
Climate
158
Relief and drainage
159
Soils
160
Vegetation
161
Available supply and turnover in a semievergreen oak forest in the southeastern United States
162
Land use
165
Synoptic diagram for the Subtropics with yearround rain
166
Dry tropics and subtropics
169
Climate
170
Relief and drainage
172
Stream erosion and wash denudation
173
Soils
174
Vegetation and animals
175
Vegetation and soil water budget
176
Adaptation to drought and stress
180
Animals in the desert
183
Biomass and primary production
184
Land use
185
Oasis agriculture
187
Synoptic diagram for tropical thorn savannas and subtropical thorn steppes in the semiarid Dry tropics and subtropics
189
Tropics with summer rain
193
Climate
194
Relief and drainage
195
Soils
198
Soil types
200
Vegetation and animals
202
Animals
203
Savanna fires
204
Zoomass and animal feed
206
Decomposition of litter
208
Mineral supplies and turnovers
209
Land use
210
Synoptic diagram for the Tropics with summer rain
213
Tropics with yearround rain
215
Climate
216
Relief and drainage
217
Soils
218
Vegetation and animals
221
Dynamics of the vegetation
224
Biomass and primary production
225
Animal feed
226
Mineral supplies and turnovers
227
Rainforest ecosystem
229
Land use
230
Synoptic diagram for the Tropics with yearround rain
235
References
237
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