Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species

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Cambridge University Press, Sep 15, 1994 - Nature - 681 pages
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This review and synthesis of the patterns and theories of biodiversity provides a firm scientific basis for the study and management of the Earth's biosphere. Beginning with a practical definition of biodiversity and an overview of diversity patterns on Earth, this book develops a conceptual framework that extends traditional theories of species diversity to explain both the general patterns of diversity and the apparent exceptions to these patterns. The author demonstrates the common features underlying diversity patterns at scales ranging from the polar-equatorial gradients to the margins of temporary ponds, and develops a mechanistic explanation of diversity patterns in different ecosystems. Many of the major concepts in ecology are incorporated into the framework for understanding patterns of diversity on landscapes. Case studies apply the theories and models to savannas, coral reefs, rain forests and other ecosystems. This book presents ideas that will stimulate and challenge professionals and students in ecology, evolutionary biology, resource management, forestry, geography, and environmental economics.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Functional Classifications of Organisms
2
An Approach to Understanding Biological Diversity
7
Overview
9
Raw Material and Tools
13
General Patterns of Species Diversity
15
The Major Global Patterns of Biological Diversity
16
Factors Correlated with Diversity
28
Summary
230
Landscape Patterns Succession and Temporal Change
232
Types and Causes of Succession
233
Holism versus Reductionism
237
Patterns of Change in Resource Availability and Species Diversity
241
The Effect of Species Physiology and Life History on Successional Pattern
247
The Effect of Resource Availability on Species Composition and Diversity
257
Spatial and Temporal Patterns along Moisture Gradients
259

Productivity
29
Diversity and the Size of the Sample Area
35
Diversity and the Spatial Heterogeneity of the Sample Area
40
Diversity and the Age of the Sample Area
42
Diversity and Disturbances
44
Other Spatial Patterns of Diversity
46
Snapshots versus Movies
55
Conclusion
62
The Assessment of Species Diversity
64
The Conceptual and Statistical Definitions of Diversity
65
What Diversity to Measure and Where to Measure it
69
Sampling Diversity in Relation to Potential Mechanisms
70
Processes that Influence Diversity at Different Scales
72
Summary
74
Theories of Species Diversity
75
Equilibrium Processes and the Maintenance of Landscapescale Species Diversity
79
Competitive Exclusion and The Theory of Competitive Equilibrium
80
The Failure of Equilibrium Competition Theory
84
Competitive Exclusion and Species Diversity
85
Environmental Heterogeneity and the Diversity of Competitors
86
Environmental Heterogeneity and the Diversity of Functional Types
90
Fundamental Differences between Animals and Plants
94
Largescale Longterm Equilibria
98
Intermediatescale Equilibria
101
Extinction and Diversity
104
Summary
107
Non_equilibrium Processes and the Maintenance of Local Species Diversity
110
Competitive Exclusion and its Prevention
111
Disturbances that Remove Dominant Species
113
General Classes of Mortality
115
Processes that Prevent Competitive Exclusion by Slowing its Rate
122
Slow Population Growth Rates
125
A Dynamic Equilibrium of Opposing Processes
131
Empirical Support for the Dynamic Equilibrium Model
139
Synthesis
143
Summary
154
Mechanisms that Regulate Diversity at Various Spatial and Temporal Scales
157
Diversity within Populations
161
Genetic Diversity
162
Size Diversity
164
Factors that Influence Size Diversity
166
A Unifying Theory of Ecology based on Individual Organisms
178
Link Physiology Populations Communities and Ecosysterms
181
Summary
184
The Structure of Communities and Ecosystems
186
Universal Constraints Produce Universal Patterns
188
Physiological Constraints on Plants
189
Plant Growth
195
Communitylevel Consequences of Individual Properties
199
Environmental Conditions and the Ecological Roles of Species
202
Consequences of Individual Physiology
205
Summary
213
Landscape Patterns Disturbance and Diversity
215
The Effects of Disturbances on Landscape Patterns
216
Disturbance Intensity
219
Disturbance Frequency
220
The Timing of Disturbances
223
Disturbance Area
224
Disturbances and Resource Availability
227
The Effect of Succession on Ecosystem Processes
266
Summary
270
Landscape Patterns Gradients and Zonation
271
Zonation Caused by Temporal Asynchrony of Biotic Conditions
272
Zonation Caused by Spatial Gradients of Physical Conditions
274
Patterns of Species Distributions along Gradients
278
Patterns of Species Diversity along Environmental Gradients
285
Shifts in Species Distributions over Time
289
Successional Patterns along a Resource Gradient
293
Interaction of Regulator Gradients and Resource Gradients
294
Summary
298
Case Studies Patterns and Hypotheses
301
Case Studies Endemism and Invasions
303
Patterns of Endemism
304
Factors that Create and Perpetuate Endemism
308
Geographical Range Endemism and Species Diversity
313
Endemism Productivity and Refuge Theory
316
Biological Invasions
318
Transport of Invading Species
319
Properties of Organisms in Relation to Invasions
320
Ecosystem Properties Related to Invasibility
329
Summary
341
Case Studies Species Diversity in Marine Ecosystems
342
Differences between Terrestrial and MarineAquatic Environments
345
The Intertidal Zone
347
Marine Benthic Communities
356
Marine Open Water Ecosystems
369
Species Diversity on Coral Reefs
381
Components of the Dynamic Equilibrium on Coral Reefs
387
Summary of Disturbance Effects on Coral Reefs
395
Coral Growth and Competition
396
The Interaction of Competition and Disturbance
403
Evolutionary History and Biogeography of Coral Reefs
405
Patterns of Vertebrate Diversity on Coral Reefs
408
Summary
411
Case Studies Species Diversity in Fireinfluenced Ecosystems
413
The Predictable and Unpredictable Effects of Fire
415
Deserts
425
Firedependent Shrub Communities of Mediterranean Climate Zones
427
Grasslands
438
Fire and Grazing in GrassTree Systems
451
Fire in Forests
468
Conclusion
480
Case Studies Species Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests
483
The Distribution and Phytogeography of Tropical Rain Forests
484
The Structure and Diversity of Tropical Forests
489
Continentalscale Patterns of Total Plant Species Richness
493
High Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity
498
The Influence of Precipitation and Soils
512
LowDiversity Tropical Forests
531
Organisms that Depend on Trees The Regulation of Animal Diversity
536
A Comparison
545
A TropicalTemperate Comparison
550
Summary
555
Concluding Comments The Economics of Biological Diversity
558
References
571
Index
671
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Page 610 - M.-J. Boyle. 1987. Herbivory on coral reefs: Community structure following mass mortalities of sea urchins.

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