Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D

Front Cover

Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for the human body. Establishing the levels of these nutrients that are needed by the North American population is based on the understanding of the health outcomes that calcium and vitamin D affect. It is also important to establish how much of each nutrient may be "too much."

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D provides reference intake values for these two nutrients. The report updates the DRI values defined in Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, the 1997 study from the Institute of Medicine. This 2011 book provides background information on the biological functions of each nutrient, reviews health outcomes that are associated with the intake of calcium and vitamin D, and specifies Estimated Average Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for both. It also identifies Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, which are levels above wish the risk for harm may increase. The book includes an overview of current dietary intake in the U.S. and Canada, and discusses implications of the study. A final chapter provides research recommendations.

The DRIs established in this book incorporate current scientific evidence about the roles of vitamin D and calcium in human health and will serve as a valuable guide for a range of stakeholders including dietitians and other health professionals, those who set national nutrition policy, researchers, the food industry, and private and public health organizations and partnerships.

 

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Contents

Summary
1
1 Introduction
15
2 Overview of Calcium
35
3 Overview of Vitamin D
75
Calcium and Vitamin D
125
Calcium and Vitamin D
345
Calcium and Vitamin D
403
7 Dietary Intake Assessment
457
Methods and Results from the AHRQOttawa EvidenceBased Report on Effectiveness and Safety of Vitamin D in Relation to Bone Health
539
Methods and Results from the AHRQTufts EvidenceBased Report on Vitamin D and Calcium
725
Literature Search Strategy
1013
Evidence Maps
1019
Cases Studies of Vitamin D Toxicity
1025
Estimated Intakes of Calcium and Vitamin D from National Surveys
1035
Proportion of the Population Above and Below 40 nmolL Serum 25Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Cumulative Distribution of Serum 25Hyd...
1045
Workshop Agenda and Open Session Agendas
1059

8 Implications and Special Concerns
479
9 Information Gaps and Research Needs
513
Acronyms Abbreviations and Glossary
523
Issues and Interests Identified by Study Sponsors
537
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
1065
Index
1075
Dietary Reference Intakes
1103
Copyright

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