German Social Democracy, 1905-1917: The Development of the Great Schism
No political parties of present-day Germany are separated by a wider gulf than the two parties of labor, one democratic and reformist, the other totalitarian and socialist-revolutionary. Social Democrats and Communists today face each other as bitter political enemies across the front lines of the Cold War; yet they share a common origin in the Social Democratic Party of Imperial Germany. How did they come to go separate ways? By what process did the old party break apart? How did the prewar party prepare the ground for the dissolution of the labor movement in World War I, and for the subsequent extension of Leninism into Germany? To answer these questions is the purpose of Carl Schorske's study.
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THE REFORM TACTIC CHALLENGED 19051907
Ill THE ELECTIONS OF 1907 AND THE NATIONAL QUES
PARTY STRUCTURE AND FACTIONAL POWER
THE SWING TO
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agitation attitude Baden Bebel Berlin Bernstein Biilow Bloc bourgeois bureaucracy Burgfrieden campaign centrists conservative decision delegates deutschen Dresden Ebert economic Eduard Bernstein elections Erfurt program executive's fight force German Social Democracy Geschichte Haase Ibid idea imperialism Independent International issue Jena Jena congress Karl Karl Kautsky Karl Liebknecht Kautsky Kautsky's labor movement Landtag leadership Ledebour left centrists left radicals Leipzig Liebknecht majority Mannheim mass actions mass strike Mehring membership ment middle class military National Liberals Noske opposition organizational parliamentary party and trade-union party congress party executive party leaders party's Paul Frolich Philipp Scheidemann political position prewar principle Pro7 problem Progressives proletariat Prot Prussian question reform reformist Reich Reichstag represented revisionism revisionists revolution revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg Scheidemann Social Demo Social Democratic Party socialist Sozialdemokratie Spartacists struggle Stuttgart suffrage tactic theory tion trade-union trade-unionists unions victory Vorwarts vote Wiirttemberg Wilhelm wing workers youth movement