Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy
Netwar-like cyberwar-describes a new spectrum of conflict that is emerging in the wake of the information revolution. Netwar includes conflicts waged, on the one hand, by terrorists, criminals, gangs, and ethnic extremists; and by civil-society activists (such as cyber activists or WTO protestors) on the other. What distinguishes netwar is the networked organizational structure of its practitioners-with many groups actually being leaderless-and their quickness in coming together in swarming attacks. To confront this new type of conflict, it is crucial for governments, military, and law enforcement to begin networking themselves.
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Part I VIOLENCEPRONE NETWARS
Chapter Two THE NETWORKING OF TERROR IN THE INFORMATION AGE
Chapter Three TRANSNATIONAL CRIMINAL NETWORKS1
Chapter Four GANGS HOOLIGANS AND ANARCHISTSTHE VANGUARD OF NETWAR IN THE STREETS1
Part II SOCIAL NETWARS
CYBER ACTIVISTS USE THE INTERNET TO PROMOTE DEMOCRACY IN BURMA
Chapter Six EMERGENCE AND INFLUENCE OF THE ZAPATISTA SOCIAL NETWAR
WTO PROTEST STRATEGY AND TACTICS
Part III ONCE AND FUTURE NETWARS
THE INTERNET AS A TOOL FOR INFLUENCING FOREIGN POLICY
ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM AND ITS OPPONENTS
Chapter Ten WHAT NEXT FOR NETWORKS AND NETWARS?
THE SHARPENING FIGHT FOR THE FUTURE1
ABOUT THE EDITORS
activists activities afﬁnity groups AFL-CIO al-Qaeda attacks beneﬁts Black Bloc bombing Burma BurmaNet Burmese campaign cartels Center Chapter Chiapas civil society communication conﬂict coordinate criminal networks cyber cyberterrorism cyberwar David Ronfeldt developed difﬁcult Direct Action Network discussion doctrine drug effect electronic email bomb emerging environmental example EZLN EZLN’s ﬁnancial ﬁrms ﬁrst ﬂexible ﬂows forms of organization gangs global guerrilla hackers hacking hacktivism hierarchical human rights inﬂuence information-age infrastructure Internet issues John Arquilla Kosovo law enforcement leaderless resistance leaders Maﬁa ment messages Mexican Mexico military movement netwar actors network forms NGOs nodes nonstate actors ofﬁce ofﬁcers ofﬁcials operations orga organizational organized crime participants police political protests RAND role Seattle signiﬁcant SLORC social netwar speciﬁc strategy street structures swarming tactics target terrorism terrorist terrorist groups threats tion traditional trafﬁcking transnational United virtual sit-ins Zapatista
Page vii - Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence) ; Mr.
Page 13 - Swarming occurs when the dispersed nodes of a network of small (and perhaps some large) forces can converge on a target from multiple directions. The overall aim is sustainable pulsing — swarm networks must be able to coalesce rapidly and stealthily on a target, then dissever and redisperse, immediately ready to recombine for a new pulse. The capacity for a "stealthy approach" suggests that, in netwar, attacks are more likely to occur in "swarms" than in more traditional "waves.