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abides in earth antecedent apprehended argued argument arises Aristotelian Aristotle atoms belong buddhi cloth colour compatible conclusion conjunction of wet consists culinary hearth dragon duction effect efficient cause elements employment enquire enumerated established ether example existence exordium fact fallacy final cause fire five-membered expression flatulence fluidity form of aggregates formal cause Gotama gravity ignited indispensable inodorous instance instrumental cause intimate union invariable attendance July 17 Kandda kinds—eternal light logic major premiss matter mind minor term modern mountain is fiery Naiydyikas nature of sound non-existence non-intimate NYAYA Nydya nyXya philosophy object odorous odour organ of sense organized body perception pervading inherence premises proposition proved proximity of intimate question reason Reductio ad absurdum regard rendered resides Rhetoric rieties sanskdra Sanskrit savour serpent breathing flame sorts soul special cause substance supposed syllogism tence term thing three kinds tion transient unorganic mass wet fuel
Page 59 - Laser Print natural white, a 60 # book weight acid-free archival paper which meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (permanence of paper) Preservation photocopying and binding by Acme Bookbinding Charlestown, Massachusetts CD 1995 The borrower must return this item on or before the last date stamped below.
Page 44 - ... to the definition, would, in the present instance, be false. Out of this definition we may carve the premises of the following syllogism : A dragon is a thing which breathes flame : A dragon is a serpent : From which the conclusion is, Therefore some serpent or serpents breathe flame...
Page 32 - For example : having repeatedly and personally observed, in the case of culinary hearths and the like, that where there is smoke there is fire ; having gathered the invariable attendedness of smoke by fire; having gone near a mountain and being doubtful as to whether there is fire in it; having seen smoke on the mountain, a man recollects the invariable attendedness, viz., 'where there is smoke there is fire.
Page 33 - Haughton's Prodromus, p. 215), "that it exhibits a more natural mode of reasoning than is compatible with the compressed limits of the syllogism, and that its conclusion is as convincing as that of the syllogism," the commendation is based simply on a misconception of the syllogism thus disparaged. On the other hand, when it is censured as " a rude form of the syllogism...
Page 40 - The fallacy falls under the first head, when that which is alleged as the proof may be present whilst that which is to be proved is absent : — as for instance, if one should say, ' The mountain is fiery, because the existence of the mountain is "capable of proof/ (the reason assigned would be liable to this Uvf eh i (.t f'lC ' v .ii • A . A v* •• PHILOSOPHY..
Page 22 - To it takes its rise, is an intimate cause (of that effect), as thread* are of cloth, and the cloth itself of its own color. Where this intimate relation exists, that cause which is associated in one and the same object (as a necessarily immanent cause) with such effect or cause, is non-intimate. Thus the conjunction of the threads is the non-intimate cause of the cloth, and the color of the threads that of the color of the i Tarka Snngraha, p.
Page 33 - For example, (1.) The mountain is fiery ; (2.) because it smokes ; (3.) whatever smokes is fiery, as a culinary hearth; (4.) and this does so ; (5.) therefore it is fiery as aforesaid.
Page 39 - ... as] the reason [for inferring the presence of fire]. That which certainly possesses the property in question is called an instance on the same side (sapaksha); as the culinary hearth, in the same example.
Page 56 - Community (samanya) is eternal, one, belonging to more than one, residing in substance, quality, and action. It is of two kinds, the highest and what is lower. The highest is existence (sattwa, primal matter ?) ; the lower is genus (jati, family or race), such as have the nature of substance (elementary substance), and the rest.
Page 31 - In regard to the import of a proposition which the logic of Europe calls a universal affirmative, such as " all men are mortal," the Naiyayika would say that there is pervadedness (vyapti) of humanity by mortality ; — and he would state the proposition thus : " Where there is humanity there is mortality.