## An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural KnowledgeConsidered the "high water mark of his philosophical achievement," Whitehead's book is a rigorous inquiry into the data of science and will be enjoyed by students of philosophy and physics alike. English mathematician and philosopher ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD (1861-1947) contributed significantly to 20th-century logic and metaphysics. With Bertrand Russell he cowrote the landmark Principia Mathematica, and also authored The Concept of Nature, The Function of Reason, and Process and Reality. |

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### Contents

2 | |

4 | |

13 | |

14 | |

16 | |

Maxwells Equations 2326 | 23 |

Clerk Maxwells Equations of | 29 |

Motion through the Ether 374i | 37 |

Abstractive Elements 108109 | 108 |

DURATIONS MOMENTS AND TIMESYSTEMS arts pages 33 Antiprimbs Durations and Moments 110112 | 110 |

Parallelism and TimeSystems 112115 | 112 |

Levels Rects and Puncts 115118 | 115 |

Parallelism and Order 118120 | 118 |

FINITE ABSTRACTIVE ELEMENTS 37 Absolute Primes and EventParticles 121123 | 121 |

Routes 123126 | 123 |

Solids | 126 |

Mathematical Formulae 4750 | 47 |

it Congruence and Recognition 5457 | 54 |

Objects 6267 | 62 |

CHAPTER VI EVENTS 16 Apprehension of Events 6871 | 68 |

17 The Constants of Externality 7174 | 71 |

Extension 7477 | 74 |

Absolute Position 7778 | 77 |

ao The Community of Nature 7879 | 78 |

21 Characters of Events 7981 | 79 |

OBJECTS 22 Types of Objects 8283 | 82 |

SenseObjects 8388 | 83 |

Perceptual Objects 8893 | 88 |

Scientific Objects 9398 | 93 |

Duality of Nature 9899 | 98 |

PART III | 101 |

Intersection Separation and Dissection | 102 |

Abstractwe Classes 104106 | 104 |

Primes and Antiprimes 106108 | 106 |

POINTS AND STRAIGHT LINES 41 Stations 128129 | 128 |

PointTraces and Points 129131 | 129 |

Parallelism 131133 | 131 |

Matrices | 133 |

Straight Lines 136138 | 136 |

NORMALITY AND CONGRUENCE 47 Normality 139140 | 139 |

Congruence 141146 | 141 |

MOTION 49 Analytic Geometry 147151 | 147 |

The Principle of Kinematic Symmetry 151155 | 151 |

Transitivity of Congruence 155157 | 155 |

The Three Types of Kinematics 157164 | 157 |

THE THEORY OF OBJECTS | 165 |

MATERIAL OBJECTS | 171 |

Extensive Magnitude 177181 | 177 |

Transition from Appearance to Cause 184189 | 184 |

FIGURES | 190 |

that extension namely extension in time or extension | 194 |

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### Common terms and phrases

a-point a-rects a-space absolute antiprime abstractive element deduced analogous apparent characters associated assumption body called causal characters characters of events co-momental cogredience collinear common complete complete intersection concept congruence consentient set converging correlation covered defined definite electromagnetic electromagnetic mass electron entities essential ether evidently existence expressed extensive component extensive quantity family of parallel formative condition fundamental geometry instant instantaneous space intersect knowledge located locus material object matrix Maxwell's equations molecules mutually normal namely nature Newtonian group null-tracks observed occupied pair particles perception perceptual objects percipient event physical object point-tracks properties punct recognition rect relation of extension relativity respectively rhythm route scientific objects sense-figure sense-objects set of event-particles simple abstractive class situation spatial specious present station stationary event straight lines temporal theory theory of relativity time-less space time-order time-system tion type of kinematics ultimate fact uniform object vector velocity volume Xapp

### Popular passages

Page 2 - The ultimate fact embracing all nature is (in this traditional point of view) a distribution of material throughout all space at a durationless instant of time, and another such ultimate fact will be another distribution of the same material throughout the same space at another durationless instant of time.

Page 5 - P", etc., and that the abstract possibility of this group of relations is what is meant by the point Q. The extremely valuable work on the foundations of geometry produced during the nineteenth century has proceeded from the assumption of points as ultimate given entities. This assumption, for the logical purpose of mathematicians, is entirely justified. Namely the mathematicians ask, What is the logical description of relations between points from which all geometrical theorems respecting such relations...

Page 3 - In biology the concept of an organism cannot be expressed in terms of a material distribution at an instant. The essence of an organism is that it is one thing which functions and is spread through space. Now functioning takes time. Thus a biological organism is a unity with a spatio-temporal extension which is of the essence of its being. This biological conception is obviously incompatible with the traditional ideas. This argument does not in any way depend on the assumption that biological phenomena...

Page 14 - The conception of knowledge as passive contemplation is too inadequate to meet the facts. Nature is ever originating its own development, and the sense of action is the direct knowledge of the percipient event as having its very being in the formation of its natural relations. Knowledge issues from this reciprocal insistence between this event and the rest of nature, namely relations are perceived in the making and because of the making.