The Eruption of Krakatoa: And Subsequent Phenomena
Royal Society (Great Britain). Krakatoa Committee, George James Symons, John Wesley Judd, Sir Richard Strachey, William James Lloyd Wharton, Frederick John Evans, Francis Albert Rollo Russell, Douglas Archibald, George Mathews Whipple
Trübner & Company, 1888 - Krakatoa - 494 pages
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after-glow altitude appearance atmosphere August blue bright cause Ceylon clear clouds coast colour continued corona December depth diagram direction distance disturbance dust east effects eruption extended fall fathoms feet gauge gives glow greater green halo haze heard height horizon hour inches intensity Intervals Island January Krakatoa less light lower mass matter mean miles mins minutes moon morning Nature nearly Noon Notes noticed November observed occurred October ordinary origin particles passed period phenomena pink Port present probably produced Professor pumice quantities rays reached recorded reflection remarkable reports rise round says seems seen Sept September setting similar sounds Strait stratum sunrise sunset Table taken tint trace twilight vapour visible volcano wave whole yellow Zeitschrift zenith
Page 195 - T being of three dimensions in space. In passing from one part of the spectrum to another X is the only quantity which varies, and we have the important law: " When light is scattered by particles which are very small compared with any of the wavelengths, the ratio of the amplitudes of the vibrations of the scattered and incident light varies inversely as the square of the wave-length, and the intensity of the lights themselves as the inverse fourth power.
Page iv - ... months subsequent to the eruption, being due to volcanic dust in suspension in the air, offered a farther incentive to investigate the whole history of the eruption. In consequence the Council in January last nominated a Committee to collect the various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation and promote their usefulness, and a sum of 1001.
Page 172 - ... (4) They differ in the regularity of their colouring. Four colours in particular have been noticeable in these after-glows, and in a fixed order of time and place — orange, lowest and nearest the sundown; above this, and broader, green; above this, broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this a faint lilac. The lilac disappears; the green deepens, spreads and encroaches on the orange; and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at last one red, varying...
Page 405 - Peru ; and have been greatly delighted with the beauty of the sky and clouds, which is here very peculiar, and I should think unrivalled in any other part of the world. Towards evening, and early in the morning, I have seen, at the same time, clouds of almost every colour, in different parts of the heavens ; and of hues I never beheld there before ; for instance, a rich and perfect green, amber, and carmine ; while the hemisphere round the rising or setting sun has been one blaze of glory. Last night,...
Page 153 - I would note three peculiarities of the phenomenon, distinguishing it from ordinary sunset reflections, and unlike anything I remember to have observed before: (i) It appears to be a reflection from no cloud or stratum of vapour whatever. (2) The peculiar lurid glow as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets. (3) The very late hour to which the light was observable — long past the usual hour of total cessation of twilight. To this may be added (4) that the centre of brilliancy...
Page 212 - ... drops of water, as it would send into the atmosphere an immense quantity of aqueous vapour and an enormous amount of fine dust — a combination the most favourable possible for producing a great number of minute drops of water. Professor C. Michie Smith observed the green sun in India, and he says: " The main features of the spectrum taken on the sun when green were — "(1) A very strong general absorption in the red end. "(2) A great development of the rain-bands and of all other lines that...
Page 19 - At 7 pm, when from the vapour and dust clouds intense darkness prevailed, the whole scene was lighted up by electrical discharges, and at one time the cloud above the mountain presented the appearance of an immense pine tree, with the stem and branches formed of volcanic lightning. The air was loaded with excessively fine ashes, and there was a strong sulphurous smell. The steamer О. О. London, within 20 or 80 miles of the eruption, passed through a rain of ashes and small bits of stone.
Page 87 - several times during the night of August 26-27, 1883, reports were heard coming from the eastward like the distant roar of heavy guns. These reports continued at intervals of between three and four hours.
Page 347 - ... visible for some time after the first glow, and not till the sunshine had almost left our atmosphere, it is evident that the filmy clouds from which these glowing colours proceed are at no great elevation. Another thing which indicates that the second glow is but a reflection of the horizon colours, is that it was always possible to tell whether the second glow would be brilliant or not before it made its appearance. If the horizon colours were high up and brilliant, then there always followed...
Page 232 - Permit me to call special attention to the very peculiar corona or halo extending from 20" to 30° from the sun, which has been visible every day with us, and all day, of whitish haze, with pinkish tint, shading off into lilac or purple against the blue. I have seen no notice of this corona observed elsewhere. It is hardly a conspicuous object.