The Eruption of Krakatoa: And Subsequent Phenomena
Royal Society (Great Britain). Krakatoa Committee, George James Symons, John Wesley Judd, Sir Richard Strachey, William James Lloyd Wharton, Frederick John Evans, Francis Albert Rollo Russell, Douglas Archibald, George Mathews Whipple
Trübner & Company, 1888 - Krakatoa (Indonesia) - 494 pages
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after-glow altitude appearance atmosphere August 27th barograph Barque Batavia blue sun bright brilliant Capt Captain cause Ceylon cirrus clouds coast Comptes Rendus corona December diagram diameter diffraction distance disturbance duration dust east ejected English miles eruption of Krakatoa explosions Fanning Island fathoms feet gauge green sun halo haze hazy height horizon inches Indian Ocean intensity intervals Island January Java Krakatoa lava light magnetite Mauritius miles an hour mins minutes after sunset moon morning Nature noon noticed November October Office Log orange pale particles peculiar Perboewatan phenomena phenomenon pink pitchstone Port probably Professor pumice rays recorded reflection remarkable reports ring rise round secondary glow seen Sept September Strait Strait of Sunda stratum Sumatra sun's Sunda Strait sunrise tint twilight glows vapour velocity Verbeek visible volcano wave xxix yellow Zeitschrift zenith zodiacal light
Page 191 - T being of three dimensions in space. In passing from one part of the spectrum to another X is the only quantity which varies, and we have the important law: " When light is scattered by particles which are very small compared with any of the wavelengths, the ratio of the amplitudes of the vibrations of the scattered and incident light varies inversely as the square of the wave-length, and the intensity of the lights themselves as the inverse fourth power.
Page ii - ... months subsequent to the eruption, being due to volcanic dust in suspension in the air, offered a farther incentive to investigate the whole history of the eruption. In consequence the Council in January last nominated a Committee to collect the various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation and promote their usefulness, and a sum of 1001.
Page 168 - ... (4) They differ in the regularity of their colouring. Four colours in particular have been noticeable in these after-glows, and in a fixed order of time and place — orange, lowest and nearest the sundown; above this, and broader, green; above this, broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this a faint lilac. The lilac disappears; the green deepens, spreads and encroaches on the orange; and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at last one red, varying...
Page 401 - Peru ; and have been greatly delighted with the beauty of the sky and clouds, which is here very peculiar, and I should think unrivalled in any other part of the world. Towards evening, and early in the morning, I have seen, at the same time, clouds of almost every colour, in different parts of the heavens ; and of hues I never beheld there before ; for instance, a rich and perfect green, amber, and carmine ; while the hemisphere round the rising or setting sun has been one blaze of glory. Last night,...
Page 149 - I would note three peculiarities of the phenomenon, distinguishing it from ordinary sunset reflections, and unlike anything I remember to have observed before: (i) It appears to be a reflection from no cloud or stratum of vapour whatever. (2) The peculiar lurid glow as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets. (3) The very late hour to which the light was observable — long past the usual hour of total cessation of twilight. To this may be added (4) that the centre of brilliancy...
Page 208 - ... drops of water, as it would send into the atmosphere an immense quantity of aqueous vapour and an enormous amount of fine dust — a combination the most favourable possible for producing a great number of minute drops of water. Professor C. Michie Smith observed the green sun in India, and he says: " The main features of the spectrum taken on the sun when green were — "(1) A very strong general absorption in the red end. "(2) A great development of the rain-bands and of all other lines that...
Page 17 - At 7 pm, when from the vapour and dust clouds intense darkness prevailed, the whole scene was lighted up by electrical discharges, and at one time the cloud above the mountain presented the appearance of an immense pine tree, with the stem and branches formed of volcanic lightning. The air was loaded with excessively fine ashes, and there was a strong sulphurous smell. The steamer О. О. London, within 20 or 80 miles of the eruption, passed through a rain of ashes and small bits of stone.
Page 85 - several times during the night of August 26-27, 1883, reports were heard coming from the eastward like the distant roar of heavy guns. These reports continued at intervals of between three and four hours.
Page 343 - ... visible for some time after the first glow, and not till the sunshine had almost left our atmosphere, it is evident that the filmy clouds from which these glowing colours proceed are at no great elevation. Another thing which indicates that the second glow is but a reflection of the horizon colours, is that it was always possible to tell whether the second glow would be brilliant or not before it made its appearance. If the horizon colours were high up and brilliant, then there always followed...
Page 228 - Permit me to call special attention to the very peculiar corona or halo extending from 20" to 30° from the sun, which has been visible every day with us, and all day, of whitish haze, with pinkish tint, shading off into lilac or purple against the blue. I have seen no notice of this corona observed elsewhere. It is hardly a conspicuous object.