Historical Dictionary of Lithuania
The Lithuanian people have undergone historic changes quite different from those of other European nations. In earlier centuries geography provided strategic advantage and opportunities for expansion but in recent times the country has more often experienced location as a geopolitical curse. After constantly losing territory and shrinking in size, the country disappeared in 1795. However, after World War I a popular national movement led to the restoration of Lithuania as an independent state. World War II and its bloody aftermath brought foreign occupation as well as genocide, mass murder, and destruction unparalleled in the country's modern history. The restoration of independence in 1990 has fundamentally altered Lithuania's geopolitical reality. Integration into the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization promise a new level of security for the Lithuanian state in the 21st century even as the social and economic transformations present both promising opportunities and difficult challenges. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Lithuania will serve as a useful introduction to virtually all aspects of Lithuania's historical experience, including the country's relations with its neighbors. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries on significant persons, places, and events; institutions and organizations; and political, economic, social, cultural, and religious facets.
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Appendix 1 Pronunciation of Lithuanian Terms
Appendix 2 Lithuanian Rulers 12511572a
Appendix 3 Rulers of the Commonwealth Period 15691795
Appendix 4 Lithuanian Political Leaders since 1918
Appendix 5 Peculiarities of Place and Time
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19th century Algirdas ania anian Antanas Antanas Smetona army August Baltic became Belarus Belarusian Brazauskas brieﬂy Catholic Church conﬂict country’s cultural December Diet Duchy of Lithuania Duchy’s early East Prussia eastern economic elected established ethnic Lithuanians European February ﬁrst ﬂed forces foreign Gediminas gentry German Grand Duchy Grand Duke inﬂuence Jewish Jews Jogaila June Kaunas King Klaipeda known lands Landsbergis Latvia leader Lietuvos Lithu Lithuania’s independence Lithuanian language Lithuanian national movement Lithuanian-speaking Lituanus Livonia major March medieval military Mindaugas Moscow Muscovite Nationalist Union Nazi nobility November October ofﬁcial organization peasantry peasants People’s percent period Poland Poland-Lithuania Polish Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth population president prime minister Radziwill reform region religious Republic of Lithuania Russian Samogitia Seimas Sigismund Sigismund II Augustus Slavic Smetona Social Democrats Soviet occupation Soviet Union Svitrigaila Taryba Tatars Teutonic Knights tion Treaty tsarist Union of Lublin University of Vilnius USSR Vilnius Vytautas western World