Historical Dictionary of Lithuania
The Lithuanian people have undergone historic changes quite different from those of other European nations. In earlier centuries geography provided strategic advantage and opportunities for expansion but in recent times the country has more often experienced location as a geopolitical curse. After constantly losing territory and shrinking in size, the country disappeared in 1795. However, after World War I a popular national movement led to the restoration of Lithuania as an independent state. World War II and its bloody aftermath brought foreign occupation as well as genocide, mass murder, and destruction unparalleled in the country's modern history. The restoration of independence in 1990 has fundamentally altered Lithuania's geopolitical reality. Integration into the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization promise a new level of security for the Lithuanian state in the 21st century even as the social and economic transformations present both promising opportunities and difficult challenges. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Lithuania will serve as a useful introduction to virtually all aspects of Lithuania's historical experience, including the country's relations with its neighbors. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries on significant persons, places, and events; institutions and organizations; and political, economic, social, cultural, and religious facets.
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Appendix 1 Pronunciation of Lithuanian Terms
Appendix 2 Lithuanian Rulers 12511572a
Appendix 3 Rulers of the Commonwealth Period 15691795
Appendix 4 Lithuanian Political Leaders since 1918
Appendix 5 Peculiarities of Place and Time
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19th century active anian appointed army attempts August authorities Baltic became began born Catholic Central century Christian Church Commonwealth Communist Constitution continued country’s cultural December Democratic Despite died Diet early East eastern economic elected especially established ethnic Europe European February ﬁrst forces foreign formally founded German Grand Duchy Grand Duke head important independence industrial inﬂuence initiated Italy January Jews joined July June Kaunas King Knights known lands language late leader literature Lithu Lithuanian major March military Moscow movement Nationalist Nazi November occupation October organization Party peasants percent period Poland Polish Polish-Lithuanian political population president Press prime minister prominent published reform region relations religious Republic returned rule Russian schools Seimas served Sigismund social Socialist Soviet Soviet Union Studies territory Teutonic tion town Treaty tsarist Union United University Vilnius Vytautas western World