Space Programs Outside the United States: All Exploration and Research Efforts, Country by Country
Most people are familiar with NASA and the Soviet and then Russian space programs, but how many people have heard of the Austrian Space Agency? Space Ireland? SUPARCO of Pakistan? Space exploration and space-related scientific applications, far from being the province of the superpowers, are a worldwide effort and are developing in some seemingly unlikely places. Forty-two countries or groups of countries, besides the United States, have or have had active space programs.
This near-comprehensive (American agencies, well documented elsewhere, are omitted) history of the world's space programs is full of detailed information. The heavily illustrated chapters, arranged alphabetically, describe each country's facilities; launch vehicles, rockets and satellites; major areas of research; and more.
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aboard activities aerospace altitude antenna applications Ariane astronauts astronomy atmosphere balloon booster camera cosmonaut crew designed detectors earth observation electronic energy engine environment Envisat equipment ESA's Esrange EUMETSAT European Space Agency experiments facilities flight galaxies gamma-ray global ground images infrared Institute instruments International Space Station ionosphere ISAS Kagoshima Space Center Korolev land launch vehicle launcher lite lunar magnetic field magnetosphere Mars measure ment Meteosat miles mission module monitoring moon NASA NASDA NASDA Report National Space ocean onboard operational optical orbit ozone payload performed plasma polar processes propulsion radar RADARSAT-2 radiation radio range remote sensing RSC Energia Russian SAC-C Salyut satel scientific sensors sion solar solar wind sounding rockets Soviet Soyuz Space Agency Space Center space program Space Research space science spacecraft spectrometer stage stars surface telescope temperature thermal tion United weather wind WRESAT X-ray