Scaled Worlds: Development, Validation, and Applications
Samuel G. Schiflett
Ashgate, 2004 - Transportation - 363 pages
This text identifies and discusses emerging challenges and opportunities arising from advanced-technology simulation-based microworld analogues of operational environments. These scaled worlds have been used and advocated for many years. A major transformation is expected in research and training using new, more advanced versions of these systems. Technology now affords new capabilities using PC-based systems. Complex and distributed expert decision making and team performance can be elicited and rehearsed through affordable and easily distributed systems. These new systems will transform the nature of research and training on two fronts: (1) the content internal (i.e. laboratory control) and external validity, and (2) who can do the research and/or training, as these new systems offer more opportunities/options. train, educate and/or utilize individuals who may be distributed across the globe. Researchers across the globe will also use these new capabilities, forging new and multi-discipline research as new alliances and collaborations are enabled. Research previously restricted to highly realistic and restricted high-fidelity systems will be open to more participants and these new processes and systems will create new opportunities. Such systems will offer more realism, control and feedback to researchers and trainers. Distributed systems can link multiple nodes, allowing many participants to perform within a shared scenario. Scenarios are more easily constructed and controlled. Opportunities using these internet-based systems are clear, as evidenced by high funding and investments in advanced internet-based training systems. Universities, corporations and DoD organizations are rapidly escalating their use of such systems for collaborative research, education, distributed training and distance learning. education and training for most performance domains. Low to medium fidelity environments capture knowledge and performance requirements while retaining high levels of experimental control and generalizability. This book goes further than others on simulation-based training and research (which focus on highly realistic systems) by addressing the issues of scale, fidelity and purpose in more abstracted scaled world systems. It brings together experts who use these systems, from a variety of perspectives. Their contributions document emerging trends and issues with regard to development, utilization and validation of these emerging scaled world systems.
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Some Reflections on Microworld Research
Monitoring Distributed Collaboration in the C3Fire Microworld
Using Scaled Worlds to Track Changes in Mental Models During
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actions adaptive AEDGE aircraft assets AWACS basic behavior Brehmer Brooks AFB Brooks City-Base C4ISR Cannon-Bowers cognitive task analysis command and control communication complex component teams constraints constructs coordination decision decision-making display distributed dynamic effects Elliott Entin Ergonomics Society evaluation example experience experimental experimental control feedback Figure flight focused functions Human Factors identify individual and team instructional interaction knowledge Kozlowski learning low fidelity memory mental models metacognitive microworld mission monitoring MTSs multi-team outcome participants performance measures platform players Predator problem procedural knowledge procedures psychological fidelity relationship relevant role Salas scaled world scenario Schiflett scores SCOTT E-2C simulation simulation-based Situation Assessment situation awareness skills specific strategies structure synthetic task environment tactical target team members team performance team process teamwork theory track types validity variables verbal weapons directors workload