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Some Aspects of the Aims and Achievements of
Ottoman Relbrm and the Politics of Notables
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Abbas Mirza Abd al-Karim administration al-Azhar al-Hasibi al-Tahtawi Aleppo Alexandria Arabic authority ayan Beduin Beirut British bureaucracy Cairo capital central Christian civil consuls councils Damascus Druze economic Efendi Egypt Egyptian established Europe European foreign France French groups Hasibi Heyworth-Dunne Ibid important increased influence institutions interests Islam Istanbul Jabal Jabal Druze Janissaries Jewish Khan khedive land later Lebanon London Mahmud Malkam Mamluke Mehmed Mekteb-i Osmani ment Middle East Midhat Midhat-Pacha military minister Mirza Misr modernization Moshir Muhammad Muslim Naser od-Din nineteenth century non-Muslim notables od-Dowleh officials Ottoman Empire Ottoman School Palmerston Paris Pasa Pasha peasant percent period Persia political population Porte Professor provinces reform religious rule ruler Sami Shaykh social society Sudan sultan Syria Tanzimat Tehran towns trade traditional Turkey Turkish Turks ulama urban vali vilayet villages Western Young Ottoman