Lexical Layers of Identity: Words, Meaning, and Culture in the Slavic Languages
Focusing on Slavic languages, Danko Šipka provides a systematic approach to lexical indicators of cultural identity. In contrast to existing research, which focuses heavily on syntactic and phonological approaches, Šipka's approach is novel, more systematic and encompassing, and postulates three lexical layers of cultural identity: deep, exchange, and surface. The deep layer pertains to culture-specific words, divisions, and features that are generally not subject to change and intervention. The exchange layer includes lexical markers of cultural influences resulting from lexical borrowing, which situates the speakers into various cultural circles. This layer is subject to gradual changes and some limited level of intervention from linguistic elites is possible. Finally, the surface layer encompasses the processes and consequences of lexical planning. It is subject to abrupt changes and it is shaped in constant negotiation between linguistic elites and general body of speakers.
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Relevant Research Traditions
Lexemelevel Culturebound Words Divisions and Features
Lexiconbased Culturebound Field Density
Stability and Change
Inbound and Outbound Exchange
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aforementioned analysis attitudes authors bilingual body of speakers Bosnian changes Chapter cognitive colloquial common concepts contact borrowing contrastive Count Croatian cross-cultural cultural identity cultural influences culturology dataset deep layer defined dialects differences differentiation discussed elites English entries example exchange layer German groups of Slavic idioms inherited interventions layers of cultural lexeme-level lexemes lexical borrowing lexical exchange lexical fields lexical items lexical layers lexical planning lexical profile lexical transfer lexicographic lexicology lexicon linguistic loanwords macro macrofield macrolanguage markers of cultural means micro maneuvers monolingual dictionaries multiple equivalence Natural Semantic Metalanguage non-standard normative particular percentage Polish polychronic processes prominence index proposed Proto-Slavic relevant Russian semantic fields Serbian Serbian language Serbo Serbo-Croatian Šipka Slavic languages social South Slavic South Slavic languages standard language surface layer Table three layers tradition types usage labels variants of Serbo-Croatian versus vocabulary West Slavic West Slavic languages words