Military and Society in 21st Century Europe: A Comparative Analysis

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Jürgen Kuhlmann, Jean Callaghan
LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 - Political Science - 340 pages
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After the Cold War came to an end, European countries in both East and West faced the common question of how their military organizations and those of their neighbors would respond to shifts in international relations affecting their economies, their perception of globalized threats, and cross-national security management. It is undisputed, for example, that in well-developed democratic societies, the challenge to the legitimacy of the military in society, the decreasing subjective apprehension of threat, and growing opposition to systems of universal conscription have been linked to gains in wealth and living standards. This volume seeks, by empirically measuring social indicators, to assess the current state of civil-military relations in a number of countries in Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Russia) as well as the state of relations in several of their Western European counterparts (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands). The country studies describe and analyze the differing positions of the military in their specific national settings.

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The Development of CommonRisk Society A Theoretical Overview
The Military in Democratic Societies New Times and New Patterns of CivilMilitary Relations
ReNationalization of Military Strategy? New Challenges for the Armed Forces in a Changing Global Environment
Bulgarian Armed Forces after the 1997 Elections Opportunities for and Challenges to Genuine Reform
CivilMilitary Relations in Modern Society The Czech Case
Transforming the Defense Sector in a New Democracy CivilMilitary Relations in Hungary Facts and Tendencies
Coping with the Peace Dividend Germany and its Armed Forces in Transition
France Farewell to the Draft and All That
Italy and its Military Toward a New Deal
The Netherlands Armed Forces An Organization Preparing for the Next Century
The Military in CommonRisk Societies Elements of Comparison among Nine Countries of West Central and East Europe
Issues Guiding Questions and Variables
The Contributors

Romania A Delayed Modernization
The Military and Society in PostCommunist Russia at the Threshold of the 21st Century

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Page 2 - Anthony Giddens, Modernity and Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age...
Page 17 - Giddens distinguishes between "low-" and "high-consequence" risks: the former potentially within the control of the individual agent (eg peculiarities of diet which may have certain medical consequences), the latter "by definition ... remote from the individual agent, although — again by definition — they impinge directly on each individual's life-chances." Examples of high-consequence risks range from mercury in tuna fish to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Risk assessment is a complex and...
Page 17 - Modern society is based on processes of "time-space distanciation" - the conditions under which time and space are organized are transformed so as to connect presence and absence, and are constantly re-ordered to permit multiple new "zonings
Page 16 - Control of risk is an essential part of the operation of abstract systems: ... all action ... is in principle 'calculable' in terms of risk - some sort of assessment of likely risks can be made for virtually all habits and activities, in respect of specific outcomes. The intrusion of abstract...
Page 16 - In high modernity, the influence of distant happenings on proximate events, and on intimacies of the self, becomes more and more commonplace. The media, printed and electronic, obviously play a central role in this respect. Mediated experience, since the first experience of writing, has long influenced both self-identity and the basic organization of social relations.
Page 16 - New risks arise from the nature of modern social organization: there is risk "stemming from the created environment, or socialized nature: the infusion of human knowledge into the material environment, and the development of "institutionalized risk environments affecting the life-chances of millions

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About the author (2000)

Jurgen Kuhlmann was, until his retirement, director of research at the George C. Marshall European Center. The editors have contributed to "New Times for the Military, " "Military Security, " and articles in such distinguished journals as "Armed Forces & Society".

Jean Callaghan is attached to the research department of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. He has contributed to New Times for the Military; Military Security, and articles in such distinguished journals as Armed Forces & Society.

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