## The Birth of String TheoryAndrea Cappelli, Elena Castellani, Filippo Colomo, Paolo Di Vecchia String theory is currently the best candidate for a unified theory of all forces and all forms of matter in nature. As such, it has become a focal point for physical and philosophical discussions. This unique book explores the history of the theory's early stages of development, as told by its main protagonists. The book journeys from the first version of the theory (the so-called dual resonance model) in the late sixties, as an attempt to describe the physics of strong interactions outside the framework of quantum field theory, to its reinterpretation around the mid-seventies as a quantum theory of gravity unified with the other forces, and its successive developments up to the superstring revolution in 1984. Providing important background information to current debates on the theory, this book is essential reading for students and researchers in physics, as well as historians and philosophers of science. |

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### Contents

the analytic Smatrix | 81 |

Part III The Dual Resonance Model | 133 |

Part IV The string | 219 |

Part V Beyond the bosonic string | 329 |

Part VI The superstring | 419 |

Part VII Preparing the string renaissance | 509 |

Appendix A Theoretical tools of the Sixties | 569 |

### Common terms and phrases

action Ademollo algebra anomaly Bardakci bosonic string Brink Cambridge University Press CERN chiral closed string conformal construction coordinates corresponding covariant Cremmer critical dimension described Dirac discussed dual models dual resonance models duality equation factor fermions Fubini function gauge theories ghosts Gliozzi Goddard gravity hadrons high energy integral introduced invariance Jošel Lagrangian Lett light-cone loop Lorentz Lovelace Mandelstam massless mesons momentum N-point Nambu Neveu Nielsen no-ghost theorem Nucl Nuovo Cimento obtained Olive open string oscillators Paolo Di Vecchia paper particles Phys physical pions Polyakov Pomeron quantization quantum field theory quantum theory Ramond Regge trajectories relativistic string reparameterization S-matrix Sakita scalar scattering amplitude Scherk Schwarz spacetime spacetime dimensions spectrum spin spinor string theory strong interactions sum rules supergravity superstring theory supersymmetry Susskind symmetry t-channel tachyon theoretical Thorn transformations unitarity vector Veneziano amplitude Veneziano model vertex operators Virasoro world-sheet Yang–Mills Zumino