How Zen Became Zen: The Dispute Over Enlightenment and the Formation of Chan Buddhism in Song-Dynasty China
How Zen Became Zen takes a novel approach to understanding one of the most crucial developments in Zen Buddhism: the dispute over the nature of enlightenment that erupted within the Chinese Chan (Zen) school in the twelfth century. The famous Linji (Rinzai) Chan master Dahui Zonggao (1089-1163) railed against heretical silent illumination Chan and strongly advocated kanhua (kan) meditation as an antidote. In this fascinating study, Morten Schltter shows that Dahui's target was the Caodong (St) Chan tradition that had been revived and reinvented in the early twelfth century, and that silent meditation was an approach to practice and enlightenment that originated within this new Chan tradition. Schltter has written a refreshingly accessible account of the intricacies of the dispute, which is still reverberating through modern Zen in both Asia and the West. Dahui and his opponents' arguments for their respective positions come across in this book in as earnest and relevant a manner as they must have seemed almost nine hundred years ago. Although much of the book is devoted to illuminating the doctrinal and soteriological issues behind the enlightenment dispute, Schltter makes the case that the dispute must be understood in the context of government policies toward Buddhism, economic factors, and social changes. He analyzes the remarkable ascent of Chan during the first centuries of the Song dynasty, when it became the dominant form of elite monastic Buddhism, and demonstrates that secular educated elites came to control the critical transmission from master to disciple (procreation as Schltter terms it) in the Chan School.
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2 The Chan School and the Song State
3 Procreation and Patronage in the Song Chan School
The Reinvention of the Caodong Lineage in the Song
A Dog Has No BuddhaNature Kanhua Chan and Dahui Zonggaos Attacks on Silent Illumination
The Caodong Tradition as the Target of Attacks by the Linji Tradition
7 Silent Illumination and the Caodong Tradition
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abbot attacks on silent became biography Buddha Buddha-nature bukkyō Caodong masters Caodong tradition Ch’an Chan lineage Chan monasteries Chan school Chan traditions Chan transmission chanshi taming chanshi yulu Chanyuan Chinese Chuandeng lu Cited dahong Dahui nianpu Dahui yulu daie nenpu danxia daokai dharma heirs dharma transmission discussion dōgen dongshan Liangjie educated elite extant famous Fayan Foguo Fujian funerary inscription gongan Guangdeng lu hereditary monasteries hongren Hongzhi guanglu Hongzhi lu huanglong Hubei Hubei jinshi zhi huihong huineng ibid inheritance certificate ishii jinshi kanhua Chan Linji tradition literati meditation monks officials public abbacies public monasteries pushuo Qingyu recorded sayings Schlütter seems Sengbao zhuan sermon siku quanshu silent illumination silent illumination approach Sōdai zenshū sources Southern Song story Suizhou tang teachings tiantai tiantong Tiaofa shilei tonsure tonsure family touzi transmission family transmission histories twelfth century Wang Wuzu Xudeng lu Yiqing Yiqing’s Yuanwu Keqin yulu Yunmen Zhang Zongmi