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abutments angles arch bridges arch ring bars beams bottom bridge building built carried cent chimney columns compression conduit construction counterforts cracks crete cross-section crown culvert depth designed diameter drawings of Fig elastic elastic limit embedded employed engineers equation example expanded metal extrados face factor of safety filling flexure floor floor-beams foundation girders Hennebique hoops horizontal illustrated Ingalls Building intrados joints lagging layer length lineal foot load longitudinal masonry material Melan arch modulus of elasticity mold Monier mortar neutral axis piers piles pipe placed plaster plate Portland cement practice pressure reinforced concrete reinforced-concrete reinforcement consists retaining-walls rods roof sand sewer shear shell shown by Fig shows side slab soffit spaced span spandrel walls square foot square inch steel stirrups stresses struction structure surface Table tanks tensile tensile strength tensile stresses tension tests Thacher thick tion transverse vertical voussoir weight width wire
Page 392 - ... two steel ribs, and of sufficient width to constitute a day's work. The concrete shall be deposited in layers, each layer being well rammed in place before the previously deposited layer has had time to partially set. The work shall proceed continuously day and night if necessary to complete each longitudinal section. These sections while being built shall be held in place by substantial...
Page 422 - ... face shall be washed with a thin grout of the consistency of whitewash, mixed in the proportion of 1 part cement to 2 parts of sand. The wash shall be applied with a brush.
Page 219 - ... similar form and arrangement. Between the concrete bearingblocks there were placed sheets of asbestos board to distribute the pressure. These cushions have proven to be too compressible, and have caused some trouble for this reason. By referring to the plan of the abutment hinges given in Fig. 136 it will be observed that there is an open space between the rib hinges and the arch-ring hinges on each side. These spaces were left open during the construction of the arch but were afterwards filled...
Page 424 - ... represent masonry. The piers, abutments, and spandrels shall be faced with vitrified brick, as shown on plans. The brick facing shall be plain below the springing lines of the arches, and rock-faced above these lines. All rock-faced brick shall be chipped by hand from true pitch lines. All brick-facing shall be bonded as shown on plans, at least one-fifth of the face of the wall being headers. The brick must be of the best quality of hard-burned paving brick, and must stand all tests as to durability...
Page 266 - S 5-8s 9 8-59 6 6.<;S 10 9-23 7 7.26 12 10 .61 8 7.92 13 11.23 to locate the reinforcement along the lines of greatest tension. The reinforcement used was expanded metal and was arranged as is clearly shown by the drawing. The concrete was composed of i part cement, 2^ parts sand, and 4^ parts gravel or broken stone of ij-in.
Page 381 - Centering. — The contractor shall build an unyielding falsework or centering. The lagging shall be dressed to a uniform thickness so that when laid it shall present a smooth surface, or it shall be made smooth by plastering or other efficient means.
Page 420 - Proceedings" of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association : "After the forms are removed, any small cavities or openings in the concrete shall be filled with mortar, if necessary. Any ridges due to cracks or joints in the lumber shall be rubbed down; the entire face shall...
Page 330 - ... follows: A 5 per cent, solution of ground alum and water is prepared, and a 7 per cent, solution of soap and water. The alum solution is mixed with the mortar to the amount of one-half the ordinary gaging water. The soap solution is then applied in amount to bring the mortar to the desired plasticity. The soap and alum, acting together, cause the precipitation of an insoluble compound in the pores of the mortar.
Page 428 - DC, gives instructive data as to this mode of procedure: The bridge in question had a mortar facing and after this was completed a heavy rain caused the entire north facade to become discolored by efflorescence. This discoloration was not uniform, but in streaks and blotches of a white color, which after weathering a short time turned into a dirty yellow. To clean the bridge trial was first made of water and wire brushes, but after a little work this method was considered impracticable owing chiefly...