String Theory and M-Theory: A Modern Introduction
String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697.
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11-dimensional algebra anomaly black hole bosonic string bosonic string theory boundary conditions brane Calabi–Yau manifolds Chapter charge chiral circle compactiﬁcation complex components conﬁguration conformal conifold coordinates corresponds coupling constant D-branes deﬁned deﬁnition described diﬀerent dilaton dual duality E-print eﬀective action entropy equations of motion EXERCISE factor fermionic ﬁeld ﬁeld strength ﬁeld theory ﬁrst ﬁve ﬂat ﬂux formula four dimensions gauge ﬁelds gauge group gauge symmetry gauge theory geometry gives heterotic string holomorphic identiﬁed implies inﬁnite inﬂation integral invariant Kšahler Kaluza–Klein left-moving M-theory M2-brane massless matrix metric modes moduli space multiplet open strings orbifold Phys potential PROBLEM quantum radius result right-moving satisﬁes scalar ﬁelds sector self-dual singularity solution space-time speciﬁc spectrum spinor string theory supergravity superstring theory supersymmetry T-duality ten-dimensional tensor three-form torus transformations two-form type IIB type IIB superstring type IIB theory vanishes world-sheet Yang–Mills
Page 8 - The only way this makes sense is if the open string ends on a physical object - it ends on a D-brane. (D stands for Dirichlet.) If all the open-string boundary conditions are Neumann, then the ends of the string can be anywhere in the spacetime. The modern interpretation is that this means that there are spacetimefilling D-branes present. Let us now consider the closed-string case in more detail. The general solution of the 2d wave equation is given by a sum of "right-movers" and "left-movers": xtt(ff,T)=3^(Ta)...
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Page 7 - Quantum mechanically, the story is more subtle. Instead of eliminating h via its classical field equations, one should perform a Feynman path integral, using standard machinery to deal with the local symmetries and gauge fixing. When this is done correctly, one finds that in general <p does not decouple from the answer.
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Page 6 - In conventional quantum field theory the elementary particles are mathematical points, whereas in perturbative string theory the fundamental objects are one-dimensional loops (of zero thickness). Strings have a characteristic length scale, which can be estimated by dimensional analysis. Since string theory is a relativistic quantum theory that includes gravity it must involve the fundamental constants c (the speed of light), h (Planck's constant divided by 2;r), and G (Newton's gravitational constant).