A Dictionary of Chemistry: Containing the Theory and Practice of that Science: Its Application to Natural Philosophy, Natural History, Medicine, and Animal Economy

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T. Cadell, 1777 - Chemistry
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Page liii - ... the total destruction and putrefaction of the wine. Oxides of lead, having the property of forming with the acid...
Page lxvi - Fixed alkalis are much difpofed to unite with oils that are not volatile, both vegetable and animal, fince this union can be made even without heat. The compound refulting from this union partakes at the fame time of the properties of oil and of alkali ; but thefe properties are modified and tempered by each other, according to the general rule of combinations. Alkali formed into foap has not nearly the fame acrimony as when it is pure ; it is even deprived of almoft all its caufticity, and its other...
Page xxxii - ... or by the addition of clean iron, upon the furface of which the copper is precipitated in its natural or metallic ftate. Glauber's fait is difcovered by adding a folution of mercury in nitrous acid, and forming with it a turbith mineral j or by cryftallization.
Page ii - Inches diftant from each other, to faften the Lute with which the Furnace is to be covered over within. 8. Let then an iron, moveable, hollow, quadrangular Pyramid (q) three Inches high, be adapted to the upper Aperture (d) of the Furnace at the Bafis feven Inches broad, ending upwards in a hollow Tube (r) three Inches in Diameter, two Inches high, almoft cylindrical, though fomewhat convergent at Top.
Page xlv - ... wax falls. As the surface of this cylinder is always moistened with water, the wax falling upon it does not adhere to it, but quickly becomes solid and flat, and acquires the form of ribands. The continual rotation of the cylinder carries off these ribands as fast as they are formed, and distributes them through the tub. When all the wax that is to be whitened is thus formed, it is to be put upon large frames, covered with linen cloth, which are supported, about a foot and a half above the ground,...
Page lxv - Good foap of this kind ought to be firm, and very white when cold ; not fubjeft to become moid by expofure to air, and entirely mifcible with pure water, to which it communicates a milky appearance, but without any drops of oil floating on the furface. When the foap has not thefe qualities, the combination has not been well made, or the quantity of fait or of oil is too...
Page lvii - They are beaten with wooden mallets, on a brick or stone floor, into a gross powder, which is heaped up in the middle of the room to the height of four feet, a space being left for passing round the sides. The powder, moistened with water, ferments, grows hot, and throws out a thick fetid fume. It is shovelled backwards and forwards, and moistened every day for twelve days, after which it is stirred less frequently, without watering, and, at length, made...
Page lxxxvi - Borda, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences of Paris for the year 1769, has treated this question with his usual elegance and ingenuity.
Page lxv - A part of this lixivium is to be even diluted and mixed with an equal weight of oil of olives. The mixture is to be put on a gentle fire, and agitated, that the union may be accelerated. When the mixture begins to unite well, the reft of the lixivium is to be added to it ; and the whole is to be digeftcd with a very gentle heat, till the foap be completely made.
Page lvii - ... After lying for fifteen days, the heaps are opened, the crust rubbed, and mixed with the inside, and the matter formed into oval balls, which are pressed close and solid in wooden moulds. These are dried upon hurdles. In the sun they turn black on the outside, in a close place yellowish, especially if the weather be rainy.

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