Waging Peace in Sudan: The Inside Story of the Negotiations that Ended Africa's Longest Civil War
Sudan is at a crossroads. The country could soon witness one of the first partitions of an African state since the colonial era. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement guarantees a referendum on self determination for Southern Sudan, which is scheduled for January 2011. The agreement ended a 20-year old civil war pitting the indigenous population against successive Arab Muslim regimes in Khartoum. By the late 1990s, the international community had largely judged the war insoluble and turned its attention elsewhere. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, a peace process between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement and Army (SPLM/A) took hold. Waging Peace in Sudan shows how that war, which ultimately claimed two million deaths and twice as many displaced, was finally brought to an end. The talks were facilitated by Intergovernmental Authority on Development under Kenyan leadership, and supported by a 'Troika' of the US, UK, and Norway - whose intense engagement in the negotiations was critical for reaching the peace agreement in January 2005. Although the cast of characters in this drama ranged from President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell to unnamed officials in East African hotels, two figures stood out: the SPLM/A Chairman, Dr. John Garang, and Ali Osman Taha, First Vice President of Sudan. Norwegian Minister of International Development Hilde F. Johnson's personal relationships with these two leaders gave her unique access and provided the basis for her pivotal role in the negotiations. She was party to virtually all their deliberations throughout this crucial period of Sudanese and African history. Waging Peace in Sudan describes this process from a unique, insider's perspective. Johnson's account provides a level of detail seldom achieved in works of contemporary African history and diplomacy. As Sudan soon faces the most decisive moment in its history, this book is indispensable reading.
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Chapter One The Troika
Chapter Two The Watershed Agreement on SelfDetermination
Conflict and Confrontation
Chapter Four From Enemies to Partners in Peace
Chapter Five Inching Forward
Chapter Six Sealing the Deal
Chapter Seven The First Taste of Peace
Epilogue Achievements and Challenges
List of Interviewees
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19 April Abel Alier Abuja Abyei Africa agreed Ali Osman Taha Americans Asmara Blue Nile called ceasefire Clare Short Comprehensive Peace Agreement CPA negotiations Danforth delegation to CPA Deng Alor Ding discussions donors Ellefsen engagement Eritrean Fink Haysom forces government's Group interview humanitarian IGAD implementation interim period interview with members issues John Garang June Kenyan Khartoum later leaders Machakos Machakos Protocol meeting members of Sudanese ment military militia Movement Nairobi Naivasha National Congress Party National Democratic Alliance needed Nhial Norwegian Nuba Mountains Osman Taha Pagan Amum peace process political position President Bashir proposal rebel groups referendum role Rumbek Salva Kiir Mayardit Security Council self-determination Sharia side signing South Southern Blue Nile Southern Sudan Special Envoy SPLA SPLM SPLM/A SPLM/A Chairman SPLM/A delegation SPLM/A leadership Sudanese government Sudanese govt Sumbeiywo Taha's talks Three Areas tion told Troika Vice President wanted wealth sharing Yasir Arman