Report on the Improvement of the Kanawha and Incidentally of the Ohio River: By Means of Artificial Lakes

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Collins., 1858 - Flood dams and reservoirs - 125 pages
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Page 28 - I propose to convert this entire area into an artificial lake, by forming a mound of earth, or a stone dam, across its outlet. This dam will be 68 feet high from the low water surface of the river to the bottom of the waste for the discharge of the surplus water. The length of the mound will be 140 feet at bottom, where the banks of the river draw near together, and 875 feet at the surface of the lake — 68 feet above the river. The length of the lake thus formed will be 21 T% miles.
Page 21 - VALLEY. advantages to society will be experienced there, which, it can be shown, are certain to follow the application of this system on the Ohio. It is not asserting more than the measurements presented in this paper will justify, when it is maintained that it is entirely in the power of man to control all the waters of the Mississippi and Missouri, and compel every river to flow with an even current, from its source in the Alleghany or Rocky Mountains, to its home in the Ocean, forever free from...
Page 76 - The river itself is the common receptacle of all the contents of the sewers and gutters, and other disgusting products of all the cities on its banks. It is from the river, thus polluted, that the people of the Ohio Valley now derive their supply of water for domestic uses. It is scarcely to be doubted that the day is not distant, when these great and increasing cities will be driven to the necessity of purifying this tainted water, for the preservation of the health of their citizens.
Page 64 - If the dam is formed of earth, its width at the level of the surface of the water will be 100 feet; and at the foundation over 300 feet. Fifty feet of the width of the mound, at top, will be reserved for mill seats, leaving space for a landing and road way, 34 feet wide, between the edge of the lake and the front of the mills.
Page 59 - We are now in a position to determine approximately how long it will require to draw water from the dam at the rate assumed in order to produce a flood 54 miles long and 4 feet deep in the Ohio River. We have seen that such a flood in the Ohio will contain 1,140,480,000 cubic feet of water. Dividing this by the approximate discharge, or 13,000 cubic feet per second, we obtain 1,140,480,000 u, -00 . — — = 87'729 seconds' or a mere fraction over 24 hours.
Page 65 - When there is a small surplus, as there may sometimes be, unless the dam is raised somewhat higher, it will be just as well to allow the water to be used in driving machinery as to run to waste ; and when there is a deficiency, and water must be furnished to the rivers below, for the benefit of their navigation, it is just as well to let it do service on its passage, as to flow away idly into the streams to be supplied.
Page 67 - Where such extensive openings are needed, a stone dam possesses some very great advantages ; and, if the foundation should prove to be all I expect to find it, there are few places where stone could be more advantageously applied to such a structure than just here. Sandstone of excellent quality, and exceedingly convenient to the work, can be found scattered about in large rectangular masses and in place, above and below the site of the dam.
Page 86 - ... for the benefit of navigation, and allowing the reservoirs to fill up when the Mississippi is rising, and to be exhausted in the summer and autumn, when the Mississippi, like its tributaries, is always low — the floods of that great river, produced by the out-pouring of numerous smaller streams, may be abated, and by the progressive extension of this system, ultimately controlled.
Page 60 - Dividing this by the approximate discharge, or 13,000 cubic feet per second, we obtain 1,140,480,000 u, -00 . — — = 87'729 seconds' or a mere fraction over 24 hours. We have then these results : That, to produce a wave 54 miles long and 6 feet deep on the bars of the Ohio, at low water, we must draw fast enough from the lake to produce a depth of 7 feet on Elk Shoal, and at least 7 feet on all the shoals below Elk.
Page 7 - If we confine our efforts to the improvement of the Kanawha, as has been the past policy of the company, we must confine its trade, during the period of low water in the Ohio, to the markets on its own banks. We can gain nothing by sending the produce of the Kanawha Valley into the dried-up channel of the Ohio.

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