This powerful book reveals how modern strategies of punishment—and, by all accounts, their failure—relate to political and economic transformations in society at large. Jonathan Simon uses the practice of parole in California as a window to the changing historical understanding of what a corrections system does and how it works. Because California is representative of policies and practices on a national level, Simon explicitly presents his findings within a national framework.
When parole first emerged as a corrections strategy in the nineteenth century, work was supposed to keep ex-prisoners out of trouble. This strategy foundered in the changing economy after World War II. What followed was a rehabilitative strategy, where the clinical expertise of the parole agent replaced the discipline of the industrial labor market in defining and controlling criminal deviance. Today, Simon argues, as drastic changes in the economy have virtually locked out an entire class, rehabilitation has given way to mere management. The effect is isolation of the offender, either in jail or in an underclass community; the result is an escalating cycle of imprisonment, destabilization, and insecurity.
No significant improvement in the current penal crisis can be expected until we better understand the relationship between punishment and social order, a relationship which this book explores in theoretical, historical, and practical detail.
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Parole as Normalization
TWO Disciplinary Parole
THREE Clinical Parole
From Normalization to Management
FOUR The Legal and Political Environment
FIVE Parole and the Hardening of Urban Poverty
SIX New Technologies of Control 19701990
addiction administrative African-American agency arrest Berecochea Board of Prison caseloads century chapter clinical model cocaine courts created crime criminal justice custody decision Department of Corrections disciplinary model discipline discretion drug testing economic effect employment exercise felons frankpledge function guidelines Hispanic income indeterminate sentence individual inmates inner-city parolees institutions Kerner Commission labor market less managers manual mass surveillance ment Messinger model of parole Morrissey nalline narcotics networks normal norms offenders organization parole agent Parole Division parole officer parole release parole revocation parole staff parole supervision parolee's penal percent police political poor power to punish practice prison labor prison population probation problem Progressive Era rationality recidivism reform returned to prison risk role Rothman sample Sebokeng sentence law significant social control society Statistics strategy supervisors technologies tion treatment underclass unit urban welfare