The nightingale's burden: women poets and American culture before 1900
In this evocative exploration, Cheryl Walker shows that there is a distinct tradition of women's poetry in America -- one that the poets themselves have not always been fully aware of -- and that individual poems can be read as manifestations of that tradition. Philomela, the nightingale of literary mythology, serves as a model for women poets, representing simultaneously both their particular forms of power and the frustrating powerlessness imposed on them by the cultural norms for women. The author identifies a number of archetypal motifs: the power fantasy, the sanctuary poem, the renunciation poem, the forbidden lover poem, the "burden of beauty," and the "secret sorrow." Among the poets discussed are Anne Bradstreet, Phillis Wheatley, Lydia Sigourney, Frances Osgood, Julia Ward Howe, Margaret Fuller, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, and Louise Guiney.
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The Poetess at Large
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Adrienne Rich ambivalence American women poets Amy Lowell Anne Bradstreet Autobiography bird career Catharine Beecher death desire Edna St Elinor Wylie Elizabeth Oakes-Smith Emily Dickinson Emily Stipes Watts Emily's experience expressed father fear feelings felt female poets feminine feminist Frances Harper Frances Osgood freedom Gilbert and Gubar girls heart Helen Hunt Hemans hereafter cited husband Jackson letters literary literature lives Lizette Woodworth Reese Louise Bogan Louise Imogen Guiney Lucretia Davidson Lucy Larcom Lydia Sigourney Madwoman male poets Maria Brooks marriage married mind mother never nightingale nineteenth century passion patriarchal Philomela poems poetess poetic published Puritan renunciation role Rufus Griswold sanctuary says secret sorrow seems sense sensibility sexual sister song soul speaker suggest Susan T. W. Higginson Tarpeia thee theme thou tion tradition University Press verse Vincent Millay Wheeler Wilcox woman Women Writers women's poetry writing wrote York