The development of 'cultural regions' in the neolithic of the Near East: the 'dark faced burnished ware horizon'
This work defines Neolithic Near East Dark Faced Burnished Ware (DFBW), on the basis of new data, taking into account areas of production, analyses of architectural, economic and environmental information, and the verification of the existence of a specific DFBW region and its characteristics. The distribution of DFBW to external areas is also investigated, with the goal of explaining relations between these regions during this Neolithic phase. This research was prompted by the renewed excavations at Yumuktepe-Mersin, one of the central sites of the so-called Syro-Cilician culture, and by the possibility of analyzing two of the main contexts of DFBW Judaidah, in the Amuq and Ain el-Kerkh, in the Rouj Basin. The study is presented in three main phases: the technical and typological definition of the DFBW; its distribution and characteristics within the horizon of DFBW producers; and its external distribution. A chapter is devoted to a chronological summary of the analyzed developments, as reconstructed from comparisons in the ceramic assemblages from all the sites, and in correlation with available radiocarbon dates.
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The Issue of Dark Faced Burnished Ware
The DFBW Region
Archaeometric Analyses of the Pottery
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Ain el-Kerkh amongst Amuq analysed Anatolia Antakya appear attributes Balikh Beqa'a bowls Braidwood Byblos calcite ceramic assemblage ceramic production chaff tempered Chalcolithic characterised characters chronological Cilicia Coarse Ware communities Contenson correlation dark burnished ware Dark Faced Burnished Dark Ware dates DFBW DFW horizon distinct Euphrates evidenced evident excavations Faced Burnished Ware fact furthermore Garstang Gritty Ware groups Halaf Halaf period Halula Hama Hassuna hole-mouth jars hypothesised impressed decoration indicate Judaidah Kerkh Ware later layers material culture Mellaart Mesopotamia Mezraa Miere morphological morphological typology necked jars occupation painted pottery painted ware pattern burnish period phase PIate pots pottery production pre-Halaf Pre-Pottery Neolithic present probably Qoueiq radiocarbon dates Ramad Ras Shamra region relations Rouj 2c Rouj basin Sabi Abyad samples settlements shapes sherds similar social stratigraphic stratigraphic correlations surface colour Syria technological trench Tsuneki typology vessels walls whilst White Ware Yarmukian Yumuktepe