Religion and the Decline of Fertility in the Western World
Renzo Derosas, Frans van Poppel
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 5, 2006 - Social Science - 319 pages
1. RELIGION AND THE DECLINE OF FERTILITY IN THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES: THE EMERGENCE OF A RESEARCH ISSUE During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, almost all European countries began to experience a decline in their fertility level. This transition was recognized as crucial almost from its inception, and provided a strong stimulus for the scientific study of fertility: until then there had been no apparent trend toward a decline in fertility (with the exception of France) and differentials in fertility had not been very conspicuous (Lorimer 1959: 142). Handbooks and articles on population – mainly of a statistical demographic nature – took up the question of falling birth rates and its causes. The bases for these studies were the routinely-collected population statistics that made it possible to observe fertility trends for administrative regions. By identifying administrative regions that differed in the timing and extent of the fertility decline, researchers hoped to find explanations for the fertility transition. Municipal statistical offices in larger cities such as Berlin, Vienna, Budapest and Amsterdam were able to obtain more diversified data than were generally collected by national agencies, and offered social scientists the opportunity to carry out more intensive investigations of “differential fertility,” that is of variations in fertility of socially defined subpopulations, or categories defined by occupation or rural/urban residence. Somewhat later, the national statistical agencies started to collect and publish comparable data at the national level.
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age at last age at marriage analysis birth control birth intervals breastfeeding Canada canton census cent childbearing Church cohort coitus interruptus context contraception couples covariates decline of fertility demographic behavior denominations Derosas doctrines Dutch Reformed economic effect Ettenheim factors family limitation fertility behavior fertility control fertility decline fertility limitation fertility patterns fertility transition French Canadian gender Ghetto Goldscheider Grafenhausen Hague high fertility husbands Hutterites hypothesis impact infant mortality influence institutions Irish Catholic Jewish Jews Kippenheim Knodel last birth liberal logistic regression Lutheran marital fertility rates marriage married McQuillan modern Montreal Muslim natural fertility neo-Malthusianism Netherlands nineteenth century number of children occupation Ontario Orthodox p-value parish political Catholics Poppel population registers Protestant province Quebec Reference Reference Reference regression religion and fertility religious affiliation religious differentials religious groups Ringsheim role rural sample secularization sexual significant social socioeconomic status stillbirths Table urban values variable Vaud villages