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Page 97 - ... do not behave alike, when subjected to bending-stresses. We think it is perfectly safe to say that a well-made iron car-axle, the metal of which will show in tensile strength from 48,000 to 52,000 Ib. per sq. in., will stand successfully the same fiber-stress as steel of 80,000 to 85,000 Ib. tensile strength.- Just why this is so, I am unable to explain, but there is a very large amount of accumulated experience which seems to indicate that a metal like iron, which is believed to be a bundle...
Page 33 - There were eight fires, from each of which a lump was taken every six hours, placed under the hammer, and forged into blooms, four inches square and two feet long, the daily product being about three tons. It required two six-horse teams to draw this product to the lake shore, over a wretched road.
Page 1 - Railway cars, with their loads of iron ore, convey it to blast furnaces, or, as is the custom with most Lake Superior ores, to docks provided with pockets, into which the ore drops through the opened 'bottoms of the cars, while spouts connecting with the dock pockets deliver the ore by gravity into holds of vessels specially constructed for the iron ore trade. At the end of the vessel's trip, mechanical devices remove the ore and deposit it in cars or on stock piles. "As lake navigation is suspended...
Page 92 - Percy eaye the iron which was made was always wrought iron. It is very nearly pure iron, and a very small addition of carbon would convert it into steel. Dr. Percy says the extraction of good malleable iron directly from the ore " requires a degree of skill very far inferior to that which is implied in the manufacture of bronze "t.
Page 22 - Roasting, to remove moisture from hydrated ore and sometimes water combined mineralogically ; to drive off carbonic acid from carbonate ores; to reduce the percentage of sulphur in some ores; to facilitate the removal of clay, rock, and sand by making a nonmagnetic iron magnetic ; and to improve the physical features of the ore.
Page 45 - Alexander E. Brown which served the purpose of hoisting the bucket from the hold and conveying it to storage. This innovation, which revolutionized unloading methods, was installed on a dock at Cleveland in 1882, the plant consisting of five rigs with the machinery all in one house. Some years elapsed before the next step in the progress of unloading machinery, the self-filling bucket or clamshell, became a part...
Page 95 - I make use of a reverberatory or air furnace or furnaces of dimensions suited to the quantity of work required to be done, the bottoms of which are laid hollow or dished out, so as to contain the metal when in a fluid state.
Page 62 - Nebraska," approved March 28, 1882— That the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska shall be, and hereby is, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, extended so as to include all that portion of the Territory of Dakota lying south of the forty-third parallel of north latitude and east of the...
Page 164 - ... should be carefully watched to see that tin of the required quality is used, that the cleats are put in as described, and that acid is not used in soldering. Only resin should be allowed as a. flux for soldering, as acid, which is more easily used, will injure the tin. The standard sizes of roofing plates are 14 X 20 inches and 20 X 28 inches; and they are made in two thicknesses marked IC and IX, the former weighing 8 oz. to the square foot and the latter ten ounces. The lighter brand is more...