Turing’s Connectionism: An Investigation of Neural Network Architectures

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2002 - Computers - 200 pages
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Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) was the first to carry out substantial re search in the field now known as Artificial Intelligence (AI). He was thinking about machine intelligence at least as early as 1941 and during the war cir culated a typewritten paper on machine intelligence among his colleagues at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC & CS), Bletchley Park. Now lost, this was undoubtedly the earliest paper in the field of AI. It probably concerned machine learning and heuristic problem-solving; both were topics that Turing discussed extensively during the war years at GC & CS, as was mechanical chess [121]. In 1945, the war in Europe over, Turing was recruited by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL)! in London, his brief to design and develop an electronic stored-program digital computer-a concrete form of the universal Turing machine of 1936 [185]. Turing's technical report "Proposed Electronic 2 Calculator" , dating from the end of 1945 and containing his design for the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE), was the first relatively complete spec ification of an electronic stored-program digital computer [193,197]. (The document "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", produced by John von Neumann and the Moore School group at the University of Pennsylvania in May 1945, contained little engineering detail, in particular concerning elec tronic hardware [202].
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
12 Alan Mathison Turing
4
13 Connectionism and Artificial Neural Networks
6
14 Historical Context and Related Work
10
15 Organization of the Book
13
16 Book WebSite
15
2 Intelligent Machinery
17
21 Machines
18
38 Hardware Implementation
77
4 Organizing Unorganized Machines
83
41 Evolutionary Algorithms
84
42 Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks
86
422 Encoding Techniques
87
423 Atype Network Encoding
88
424 Btype Network Encoding
90
426 LSystem Encoding
93

212 Turing Machines
19
213 Universal Turing Machines
20
214 Practical Computing Machines
21
215 Ptype Machines
22
221 Fundamentals and Definitions
23
222 Atype Unorganized Machines
26
224 Turings Education of Machinery
28
225 BItype Unorganized Machines
29
23 Formalization and Analysis of Unorganized Machines
31
231 Formalization of Atype Networks
32
232 Formalization of Btype Links
37
233 Formalization of Btype Networks
41
234 Formalization of BItype Links
42
235 Formalization of BItype Networks
44
236 The Btype Pitfall
45
24 New Unorganized Machines
48
242 TBtype Unorganized Machines
50
243 TBItype Unorganized Machines
51
244 BStype Unorganized Machines
52
245 BI1type Link
54
25 Simulation of TBItype Machines with MATLAB
55
3 Synthesis of Logical Functions and Digital Systems with Turing Networks
63
32 Synthesis of Logical Functions with Atype Networks
64
33 Synthesis of Logical Functions with TBtype Networks
67
35 DelayUnit
70
36 ShiftRegister
72
37 How to Design Complex Systems
74
Evolve Networks that Regenerate Bitstreams
97
44 Signal Processing in Turing Networks
101
45 Pattern Classification
106
Pattern Classification with Genetic Algorithms
109
47 A Learning Algorithm for Turing Networks
117
5 Network Properties and Characteristics
121
52 Computational Power
123
53 State Machines
125
54 Threshold Logic
127
55 Dynamical Systems and the StateSpace Model
131
56 Random Boolean Networks
133
57 Attractors
135
58 Network Stability and Activity
138
581 Activity in Atype Networks
142
582 Activity in BStype Networks
144
583 Activities in TBtype and TBItype Networks
147
59 Chaos Bifurcation and SelfOrganized Criticality
148
510 Topological Evolution and SelfOrganization
157
Computing Beyond the Turing Limit with Turings Neural Networks?
163
6 Epilogue
169
Useful WebSites
171
List of Figures
173
List of Tables
181
List of Examples Theorems Definitions Propositions and Corollaries
183
Bibliography
187
Index
197
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Christof Teuscher holds an electronic engineer degree and received the diploma degree in computer engineering (equivalent to a MSCS degree) from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) in 2000. Since then, he has been a research and teaching assistant in the Logic Systems Laboratory at EPFL, pursuing the Ph.D. degree in the field of biologically-inspired computing machines.

Christof Teuscher's work has been honored with several awards. His first book has been published by Springer-Verlag in 2001: Turing's Connectionism: An Investigation of Neural Network Architectures. He was head of the BioWall project that was widely covered by the media. Christof's second book - Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker - will be published in 2003. Christof has also been nominated for a fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

Christof Teuscher is the initiator and organizer of the Turing Day and an organizer and program chair of the 5th International Workshop on Information Processing in Cells in Tissues, IPCAT2003. He is also a member of the program committee of the 5th International Conference on Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware, ICES'03, of the 7th European Conference on Artificial Life, ECAL2003, and of the NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware, EH-2003.

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