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acre Agricultural ascer ascertained average bottom bricks clay cold collars convenient crops cross drain cultivation Deanston deep drains Denton discharge distance drained land drainers earth effect Elkington England English estimate evaporation expense experiments fall farm farmer field filled flow foot four-foot drain freshets frost furrows Gisborne gravel greater ground heat impervious inches Keythorpe labor laid less Lord Berners lower minor drains mode moisture natural observed obstruction open ditch operation outlet pass plants pond porous portion practice quantity of water Radcliffe Observatory rain-fall require drainage round pipes Royal Agricultural Society sand saturated says Scotland season Seneca County slope small drains soil spade springs stagnant water strata stratum stream subsoil plow sufficient Summer surface surplus water swamp temperature thermometer thorough-drainage three feet tile machines tile-drains tion trench two-inch pipe undrained usually whole width
Page 86 - It is wholly immaterial, whether the party be a proprietor above or below, in the course of the river; the right being common to all the proprietors on the river, no one has a right to diminish the quantity which will, according to the natural current, flow to a proprietor below, or to throw it back upon a proprietor above, This is the necessary result of the perfect equality of right among all the proprietors of that, which is common to all...
Page 278 - While the seed now has quite enough of air from the canals, it can never be without moisture, as every particle of soil which touches it is well supplied with this necessary ingredient. This, then, is the proper condition of soil for germination, and, in fact, for every period of the plant's development ; and this condition occurs when...
Page 124 - We shall shock some and surprise many of our readers when we state confidently that in average soils, and still more in those which are inclined to be tender, horse-shoe tiles form the weakest and most failing conduit which has ever been used for a deep drain. It is so, however, and a little thought, even if we had no experience, will tell us that it must be so. A doggerel song, quite destitute of humour, informs us that tiles of this sort were used in 1760 at Grandesburg Hall, in Suffolk, by Mr.
Page 316 - roots to obstruct a pipe through which there was not a "perennial stream. The flow of water in summer and " early autumn appears to furnish the attraction. I have " never discovered that the roots of any esculent vegetable " have obstructed a pipe. The trees which, by my own " personal observation, I have found to be most danger" ous, have been red willow, black Italian poplar, alder,
Page 127 - ... of soil. We confess to some original misgivings that a pipe resting only on an inch at each end, and lying hollow, might prove weak, and liable to fracture by weight pressing on it from above ; but the fear was illusory. Small particles of soil trickle down the sides of every drain, and the first flow of water will deposit them in the vacant space between the two collars. The bottom, if at all soft, will also swell up into any vacancy. Practically, if you re-open a drain well laid with pipes...
Page 347 - The statute provides that the proprietors, or a greater part of them in interest, may apply, by petition, to the court of common pleas, setting forth the proposed improvements, and for notice to the proprietors who • do not join in the petition, and for a hearing. The court may then appoint three, five, or seven commissioners to cause the improvements to be 'effected. The commissioners are authorized to
Page 278 - The very minute ones, which occur in the particles themselves ; and, whereas, all the larger pores, those between the particles of soil, communicate most freely with each other, so that they form canals, the small pores, however freely they may communicate with one another in the interior of the particle in which they occur, have no direct connection with the pores of the surrounding particles. Let us now, therefore, trace the effect of this arrangement.
Page 276 - The first thing which occurs after the sowing of the seed is, of course, germination ; and before we examine how this process may be influenced by the condition of the soil, we must necessarily obtain some correct idea of the process itself. The most careful examination has proved that the process of germination consists essentially of various chemical changes, •which require, for their development, the presence of air, moisture, and a certain degree of warmth. Now it is obviously unnecessary for...
Page 289 - ... having been previously secured through a hole made in the side of the box, by means of a tight-fitting cork, in which the naked stem of the thermometer was grooved. A gallon of boiling water was then added. The thermometer, a very delicate one, was not in the least affected by the boiling water in the top of the box. " In this experiment the wooden box may be supposed to be a field ; the peat and cold water represent the water-logged portion ; rain falls on the surface, and becomes warmed by...
Page 279 - The first of them, we perceive, is a state of too great dryness, a very rare condition, in this climate at least; in fact, the only case in which it is likely to occur is in very coarse sands, where the soil, being chiefly made up of pure sand and particles of flinty matter, contains comparatively much fewer pores, and, from the large size of the individual particles, assisted by their irregularity, the canals are wider, the circulation of air freer, and, consequently, the whole is much more easily...