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acre Angera Angouleme bark barrel Bartlett Bartlett pears baskets Belle Lucrative Beurre d'Anjou blight body branches bushels CHAPTER compost condition crop of fruit cultivation Culture for Profit digging fork distance draining Duchesse d'Angou Duchesse d'Angouleme dwarfs earth experience fact fall feet five Flemish four frost fruit growers fruit room fruit spurs fruit trees grafting growing pears grown growth of wood healthy horticultural injury instance keep knife labor land lifting sub-soil plow lime manure market purposes method mulch northern exposure nursery row nurseryman operation ORCHARD RECORD packed peaches Pear Culture pear growing pear orchard pear roots pear trees persons planted potash quantity quince readily removed rience ripening scions season Seckel seedlings sold sorts spade specimens spring standards super-phosphate surface soil system of pruning tiles under-drains varieties of pears Vicar of Winkfield Winter Varieties young orchard young shoots young trees young wood
Page 61 - The idea that our bright American sun and clear atmosphere render pruning an almost unnecessary operation, has not only been inculcated by horticultural writers, but has been acted upon in practice to such an extent, that more than three-fourths of all the bearing fruit trees in the country are at this moment either lean, misshaped skeletons, or the heads are perfect masses of wood, unable to yield more than one bushel in ten of fruit, well matured, colored, and ripened.
Page 18 - ... preferred. —Fulton, Peach Culture, 68. To shelter an orchard from the prevailing wind is often more important even than the aspect; for pear trees, especially when heavily laden with fruit and exposed to a wind storm, will suffer more injury from being shaken than from an ordinary late frost. * * * * The evergreens should be planted in lines parallel with the pear rows, and they will more than pay for the ground they occupy in protecting the fruit trees from heavy gales.— Quinn, Pear Culture...
Page 18 - ... often suffer from the piercing blasts of winter, a spot that is sheltered from these is much to be desired. And, as they usually come from the north and northwest, a site on the south or southeast of a wood or hill is, other things being equal, greatly to be preferred. —Fulton, Peach Culture, 68. To shelter an orchard from the prevailing wind is often more important even than the aspect; for pear trees, especially when heavily laden with fruit and exposed to a wind storm, will suffer more injury...
Page 62 - The trunk is not exposed to the direct rays of the sun, and consequently the flow i of sap is not accelerated, as would otherwise be the case. These few reasons, with ' numerous other advantages, might be given, but these mentioned afford sufficient evidence in favor of conical shaped trees. Two years from the time of budding the. young tree is ready to be taken from...
Page 83 - I find in our orchard, that when the ground around the trees has been well mulched, not only the growth of wood is more uniform but the fruit is larger. This, too, on pear trees otherwise receiving the same treatment. I was so convinced of this fact, that for the past four years, one part of the pear orchard has been kept covered with hay the whole year, except when removed to apply the spring dressing of manure.
Page 106 - ... how far is this disintegration to go? Beust proposed to disarm the opposition of the leading nationality by the gift of an almost complete independence, and, resting on the support thus obtained, to gain time for conciliating the remaining provinces by building up a new system of free government. It would be out of place to give a detailed account of the wellknown known measure which converted the ' Austrian empire ' into the
Page 24 - My practice is to under-drain during the summer, then fall plow and sub-soil, leaving the land in ridges during the winter. In the spring, when the ground is dry enough to work, surface plow, running the lifting sub-soil plow in the bottom of the furrow. This latter operation, with the effects on the soil of the alternate freezing and thawing during the winter months, leaves the soil in fine mechanical condition.
Page 63 - The fruit is not injured by falling from the tree. 3d. Less surface is shaded with the pyramidal than with higher and more spreading forms of growth. 4th. The trunk is not exposed to the direct rays of the sun, and consequently the flow of sap is not unduly accelerated, as would otherwise be the result.
Page 98 - If the time should ever come that one-half of the amount now spent for alcoholic decoctions, should go for choice fruit, what a difference there would be in the homes of many of our poorer classes, now rendered almost desolate by the use of intoxicating drinks.