Marsilius of Padua, the Defender of Peace

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Columbia University Press, 1956 - Philosophy - 466 pages
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Marsilius of Padua is one of the few truly revolutionary figures in the history of political philosophy. The first to propound the separation of Church and State, he is considered the precursor to subsequent political thinkers, from Machiavelli to Marx.
The Marsilian revolution consisted not only in a radical change in the theory of the relations between religion and politics that culminated in the Protestant Reformation and other central developments of the modern era, but, even more importantly, it had an effect on the whole conception of human beings - their nature, acts, values, and sociopolitical relations.
As Cary J. Nederman writes in the foreword to the new edition, "Marsilius continues to speak to many of the salient issues of modern political life, expressing his doctrines in a language that has resonance and relevance. Whether in addressing the role of citizenship as a buffer between individual and community, or in explicating the foundations of religious toleration, the Defensor pacis (and Marsilius' other writings) affords a distinctive theoretical perspective that rivals that of any of the great thinkers of the Western political tradition."
 

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Contents

Preface
xvii
Reason Power and the Peoples Will
xxx
Religion and Politics
xlvi
Language and Translation
lxvi
List of Frequent References and Abhreviations
xciii
On the First Questions in This Book and the Distinction
8
On the Differentiation of the Parts of the State and the Necessity
15
On the Final Cause of a Certain Part of the State the Priesthood
21
On Some Signs Testimonies and Examples from Both
181
On the Differentiation of the Meanings of Certain Terms
187
On the Status of Supreme Poverty Which Is Usually Called
196
On Some Objections to the Conclusions of the Preceding
215
On the Differentiation of the Priestly Office According to
233
On the Equality of the Apostles in Each Office or Dignity
241
On the Authority to Appoint the Bishops and Other Ministers
254
On the Origin and First Status of the Christian Church
267

On the Genera of Polities or Regimes the Temperate and
27
On the Distinction of the Meanings of the Term Law and
34
On the Necessity for Making Laws Taken in Their Most Proper
37
On the Demonstrable Efficient Cause of Human Laws and Also
44
On the Qualities or Dispositions of the Perfect Ruler That
56
Whether It Is More Expedient for the Polity to Appoint Each
68
On the Numerial Unity of the Supreme Government of
80
On the Correction of the Ruler and for What Cause How
87
DISCOURSE
98
Which Compose the Questions to Be Decided
102
On the Canonic Statements and Other Arguments Which Seem
108
n the Canonic Utterances of the Apostles and the Expositions
127
n the Authority of the Priestly Keys and What Kind of Power
140
Summary of the Statements Made in the Preceding Chapter
152
On the Relation of Human Acts to Divine Law and to the Judge
163
On the Coercive Judge of Heretics Namely to Whom It Pertains
173
On Certain Preliminary Considerations Needed for
274
To Whom Belongs or Has Hitherto Belonged the Coercive
287
In What Sense the Roman Bishop and His Church Are
299
On the Modes of Plenitude of Power and the Manner
313
How in Particular the Roman Bishop Has Used His Assumed
321
Church with Respect to Laymen or Civil Affairs
331
How the Roman Bishop Has Used This Plenary Power
344
On Some Objections to the Conclusions of Chapter XV
364
Replies to the Foregoing bjections
371
Refutation of the Objections Which Were Adduced from
405
Refutation of the Rational Arguments Presented in Chapter
415
Review of the Principal Aims and Conclusions of Discourses I
425
On the Title of This Book
431
Afterword
443
Bibliography 19502000
455
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About the author (1956)

Celia Brickman maintains multiple professional roles as an independent scholar, psychotherapist and teacher. She received her doctorate at the University of Chicago, and is currently the Director of Education at the Center for Religion and Psychotherapy of Chicago.

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