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Esophageal Motility Disorders
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abnormal achalasia acid action activity agents associated basal biopsy body cause cells changes cholinergic clin clinical COHEN completely contractions cytoplasm decreased demonstrated described diffuse spasm dilatation disease disorders distal dysphagia effect endoscopic esophageal mucosa esophageal sphincter pressure et al evidence examination factors fibers fiberscope frequently function gastrin gastro Gastroenterology gastroesophageal reflux gastrointestinal heartburn hiatal hernia hormones human important increase indicate initial Invest involved layer LES pressure lesions light lower esophageal sphincter mechanism motility motor mucosa muscular nerves neural normal observed occur operation pain pass patients peptic peristalsis peristaltic physiologic plexus position present primary procedure produced receptor reflux esophagitis regurgitation relaxation release reported requires response resting role secretion segment severe smooth muscle stimulation stomach striated stricture studies subjects suggested Surg surgery swallowing symptoms technique tion treatment tube upper usually