Developments in semiconductor microlithography II: seminar , April 4-5, 1977, San Jose, California
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CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
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accuracy AMIS array automatic AZ*lll beam divergence calculated CCDl2lH chip contact printing control tape cost curves defined developer device diameter direct writing dissolution e-beam electron beam electron beam lithography equipment error etching exposed exposure fabrication factor field fixture flatness focus geometry glass high resolution illumination image plane image profiles inch increase inspection integrated circuits interferometer laser layers lens limit line-edge linewidth measurements machine mask and wafer Mask Inspection micron negative resist numerical aperture operation optical microscope overlay oxide parameters pattern phase photomasks photoresist pixel plates polarity polysilicon positive photoresist positive resist process control production projection printing replication reticle sample scanning SEM/interferometer semiconductor shown in Figure shows silicon specific stage step step and repeat substrate superflat surface Table techniques temperature thermal thin film throughput transmittance typical values variables variation wafer distortion wavelength width x-ray lithography yield