Logic: In Three Books, of Thought, of Investigation, and of Knowledge, Volume 1

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Clarendon Press, 1888 - Logic - 374 pages
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Contents

Applied logic
11
Knowledge
12
CHAPTER I
13
This is effected by the logical act of naming
14
In the specific forms of the parts of speech
16
Relation of substantive verb adjective to substance event property
17
Whether the phenomenon C is or only contains the cause
18
Relation of thought to its linguistic expression
19
The other parts of speech Prepositions and conjunctions
20
Inductive methods are based on results of deductive Logic
22
B Position distinction and comparison of the matter of simple ideas
24
Comparison implies a universal this not a universal con
30
19 In the operations of B as compared with those of A thought
37
The formation of the second universal logical concept implies
43
This does not contradict but confirms the previous repre sentation of the concept as determining the connexion of its marks 186
45
Subordination of species to genus and subsumption of species
49
Inverse ratio of content and extent how far true or important
51
It does not mean the identity of the subject and predicate 75
52
Conception itself involves questions which also lead to judg
57
CHAPTER II
59
The exact nature of the causal nexus inferred from any
60
The logical sense of the copula is not affected by the quantity
63
A thing is the result according to universal laws of the sum of its conditions 187
66
Science not content with discovering a mere connexion
67
The only true problematic modality is expressed by particular
70
Incompatibility of contrary and compatibility of disparate
73
This view dominates modern science which explains in con trast with ancient which classifies Mechanical character of the former 188
77
Nor by reference to the metaphysical relation of substance
78
A law always transcends the given being an extension
79
The law which prima facie best fits in with observed facts
85
But in that case they are not judgments at all in the real sense
86
The principle of identity alone is no source of knowledge
93
Rules for framing of hypotheses not to be laid down before
94
Further determination of the predicate in the disjunctive
99
It must be possible to establish 1 major and 2 minor
100
predicates
103
The disjunctive judgment leads on to inference
105
Appendix on immediate inferences 75 Inference ad subalternaiam
106
Ad subaltemantem
107
Ad contradictoriam
108
Inference by conversion
109
Conversion of universal judgments no 81 Conversion of particular judgments
111
Conversion by contraposition
112
CHAPTER III
114
General conditions of valid inference in them
115
Special conditions in each figure The first figure
116
The second figure
117
The third figure when both premises are affirmative
118
The third figure when both premises are negative
119
The fourth figure is superfluous
121
Reduction of the other figures to the first
122
Syllogisms with hypothetical premises involve no new principle
123
Difference of the relation between reason and consequence from that between cause and effect 125
125
Syllogisms with disjunctive copulative or remotive premises
126
Chains of inference
127
A syllogisticinferences inference by subsumption inference by induction inference by analogy 97 The Aristotelian or subsumptive syllogisms merely ...
128
Such inference by subsumption involves a double circle
129
Inductive inference as solution of the first requirement
133
B Mathematical inferences inference by substitution inference
140
Inference by substitution is only strictly applicable to pure
146
Laws are not external to reality but constitute its very
148
Inference by proportion thus leads to the idea of constitutive
154
Concept not a mere sum of marks but a sum connected
157
Artificial or combinatory classification
163
Analytic and Synthetic methods practically inseparable
166
Which naturally connect with the notions of active tendency
169
But applied Logic like common thought rests on untested bases
170
But any decision postulates the competence of thought
184
Which can only be guided by conceptions in our minds 1S5 307 Our delusion could only be revealed by fresh knowledge
187
Which must be related to the old Things are not know ledge of things
192
nature
193
Form of the ultimate ideal of thought
194
Supposed analogy of the living organism Hegelianism Speculation
196
Value of the speculative ideal It belongs to logic but points beyond it
197
Error in we only know phenomena
198
BOOK II
199
Genesis of Platos doctrine of Ideas
200
CHAPTER I
202
Poetry and rhetoric
203
Uncertainty of communication
204
Explanation by abstraction
205
This the only method for simple ideas
206
Explanation by construction Description
207
1601 Description and definition
209
Confusion of Existence and Validity in case of the Ideas
210
Ideas in what sense eternal and independent of things
211
Nominal and real definitions
213
Three faults to avoid
214
Elegance and brevity
216
Evil of superfluity
218
Popular definitions
219
167 Genetic definition
221
The end of definition is the conception
222
OF THE LIMITATION OF CONCEPTIONS PAGE 16970 We must start from the conceptions already expressed in language
225
Disparate groups of sensations
227
Popular language justified
229
Relations between the members of these groups Tastes Colours
231
Scale of sounds
233
Heatsensations
235
Arbitrariness of scale
236
Illustrations from practical life
237
Moral and aesthetic distinctions
239
Transition from concave to convex
241
The distinctions remain in spite of the transition from one conception to another
242
And though there be a term in the series that satisfies both conceptions
243
Illustrations
245
Development
246
SCHEMES AND SYMBOLS 184 The notion of a universal scheme or system of conceptions
249
Pythagoreanism
250
Grandeur of its general idea
252
Poverty of the particular form in which it is expressed
254
Numbers and things
255
Thought is symbolic and discursive
256
Other kindred speculations
257
Demand for symmetry
260
1915 The Hegelian dialectic
262
A universal cannot be realised but has objective validity
264
Facts as they appear are not only relative to one another
268
Conception not akin to object in structure but in net result
270
The scheme of Leibnitz
271
Is such a scheme possible?
273
What it would require
275
Subjective character of Syllogism and Induction
276
Note on the Logical Calculus
277
Actual Reality adequacy of Judgments to it
286
THE FORMS OF PROOF
299
Eight forms of proof distinguished
307
Indirect regressive proofs
321
The mathematicians proof by strict analogy is also proof
328
Appendix
331
Illustrations from Geometry
334
A line without mass cannot be moved
352
Difficulty of analysis
364

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Page 17 - ... when it has thus created a number of such substantial entities with their adjuncts, places them in some kind of relation to each other, so as to constitute a system. And, as a result of all these processes, the world of perceptions comes to be conceived as a world in which there are " things as fixed points, which serve to support a number of dependent properties, and are connected together by the changing play of events.
Page 100 - Edition 17, basing itself upon the fundamental principle of hierarchical classification that what is true of the whole is true also of the parts...
Page 11 - ... universal law for the arrangement of a manifold material is to be discovered. Applied logic is concerned with those methods of investigation which obviate these defects. It considers hindrances and the devices by which they may be overcome; and it must therefore sacrifice the love of systematization to considerations of utility and select what the experience of science has so far shown to be important and fruitful.
Page 9 - Only a mind which stood at the centre of this real world, not outside individual things, but penetrating them with its presence, could command such a view of reality as left nothing to look for, and was therefore the perfect image of it in its own being and activity.
Page 175 - ... computation. This method will show us how, by increase or decrease of qualities, an object tends to pass from one class to another; 1 Logic, 131. and it enables us to fix upon that species as the most perfect example of the type whose essential marks are, at their greatest quantities, in equilibrium. "We always regard as the typical and most expressive examples of each genus those species in which all the marks are at the highest value which the combination prescribed by the genus allows.
Page 297 - But if inquiry were made what the "some metals " are, the answer would certainly be " Metal which is potassium." Hence Aristotle's conclusion simply leaves out some of the information afforded in the premises ; it even leaves us open to interpret the some metals in a wider sense than we are warranted in doing.
Page 293 - If the property B be present in one of the productions, either the properties A, C, and D, are all absent, or some one alone of them is absent. And conversely, if they are all absent it may be concluded that the property A is present (7). 2nd. If A and C are both present or both absent, D will be absent, quite independently of the presence or absence of B (8) and (9).
Page 74 - ... expressions of this sort one after another, he does not indeed deliberately say that the indefinite pronoun means the same in all these cases. But he would certainly, if he understood himself rightly, give this answer rather than the former. This ' It ' is, in fact, thought of as the common subject ...it indicates the all-embracing thought of reality, which takes now one shape, now another2." Sigwart regards this interpretation as too 'artificial*,' though it does not seem in the end to differ...
Page 9 - But the human mind, with which alone we are here concerned, does not thus stand at the centre of things, but has a modest position somewhere in the extreme ramifications of reality. Compelled, as it is, to collect its knowledge piecemeal by experiences which relate immediately to only a small fragment of the whole, and thence to advance cautiously to the apprehension of what lies beyond its horizon, it has probably to make a number of circuits, which are immaterial to the truth it is seeking, but...
Page 25 - It is the relations themselves already subsisting between impressions, when we become conscious of them, by which the action of thought which is never anything but reaction, is attracted; and this action consists merely in interpreting relations which we find existing between our passive impressions into aspects of the matter of impressions." l And again:2 "Thought can make no difference where it finds none already in the matter of the impressions.

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