This interdisciplinary book encompasses the fields of rock mechanics, structural geology and petroleum engineering to address a wide range of geomechanical problems that arise during the exploitation of oil and gas reservoirs. It considers key practical issues such as prediction of pore pressure, estimation of hydrocarbon column heights and fault seal potential, determination of optimally stable well trajectories, casing set points and mud weights, changes in reservoir performance during depletion, and production-induced faulting and subsidence. The book establishes the basic principles involved before introducing practical measurement and experimental techniques to improve recovery and reduce exploitation costs. It illustrates their successful application through case studies taken from oil and gas fields around the world. This book is a practical reference for geoscientists and engineers in the petroleum and geothermal industries, and for research scientists interested in stress measurements and their application to problems of faulting and fluid flow in the crust.
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anisotropy azimuth borehole breakout width Cajon Pass compaction compressive confining pressure criterion critically stressed faults defined deformation depletion depth determined deviated discussed in Chapter drilling drilling-induced tensile fractures effective stress equation estimate fault block fault plane fault slip faulting environments faulting regime fluid formation fractures and faults geomechanical Gulf of Mexico Hmax hmin hoop stress hydraulic fracturing hydraulically conductive hydrocarbon illustrated in Figure increases indicate induced initial least principal stress lithosphere logs Mohr–Coulomb mud weight normal faulting normal stress Note observed occur overpressure permeability pore pressure porosity predicted region relatively reservoir reverse faulting rock strength samples sand sandstone seismic shale shear SHmax Shmin shown in Figure strain stress concentration stress field stress magnitudes stress measurements stress orientation stress path strike-slip faulting techniques tectonic velocity vertical stress Visund wellbore breakouts wellbore failure wellbore stability wellbore wall Zoback zone