Simulating Human Origins and Evolution
The development of populations over time, and, on longer timescales, the evolution of species, are both influenced by a complex of interacting, underlying processes. Computer simulation provides a means of experimenting within an idealised framework to allow aspects of these processes and their interactions to be isolated, controlled, and understood. In this book, computer simulation is used to model migration, extinction, fossilisation, interbreeding, selection and non-hereditary effects in the context of human populations and the observed distribution of fossil and current hominoid species. The simulations described enable the visualisation and study of lineages, genetic diversity in populations, character diversity across species and the accuracy of reconstructions, allowing insights into human evolution and the origins of humankind for graduate students and researchers in the fields of physical anthropology, human evolution, and human genetics.
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Running the simulation
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allele amphora profile analysis ancestry autosome average results biological common ancestor bottleneck character difference clade identification clades cladistic coalescent theory connection accuracy constant population current species current species clade current taxa demographic diversity effective population estimate evolution example exponential growth extant lineages extinction female fossil common ancestor fossil connections fossil reconstruction fossil record fossilisation rate gene genealogy genotype hereditary hominoid identified indicated interbreeding linkage disequilibrium living species locus logistic profile male mating groups migration window monogamy monophyletic Monophyletic Paraphyletic found monophyly mtDNA mutation rate non-hereditary characters number of migrations overall common ancestor parameters Paraphyletic particular paternal common ancestor phylogenetic phylogeny polyandry polygyny polyphyletic recent common ancestor recombination reconstructed migrations reconstruction algorithm sample population Section selective advantage sex ratio shown in Figure shows simulations presented single run species on continent species simulation surviving lineages Table taxa taxon tion true common ancestor true fossil Wagner reconstruction Y chromosome
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