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05 level actual approximately assigned assumed assumption behavior cent central tendency Chap Chapter coefficient column computed concerning confidence limits considered corresponding critical values curve degrees of freedom described determine difference distribution of X effective excitatory tendency equal equation estimate example experimental Figure follows greater hypothesis being tested hypothetical independent samples interval investigator level of significance located mean and variance measurement method normal distribution noted null hypothesis number of degrees observed value one-sided test outcome paired observations population sampled possible values probability distribution procedure proportion psychological continuum random sample random variable raw score reference reject the hypothesis relationship represented response sampling distribution scale values sensory-perceptual events specified standard deviation standard scores statistic stimulus continuum subjects Substituting in Formula test the hypothesis tested under Treatment theoretical frequency theory tion total number trials Type I error value of x2 values of X variation verbal zero