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The Ancien Regime BEFORE 1789
The French Revolution 17891799
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America amongst anti-clerical Archbishop attitude Austria authority became bishops Bismarck British campaign Cardinal Catholic Church Catholicism Centre party Christian Church in France Civil Constitution clergy Communist concerned Concordat condemned conflict Consalvi danger Dupanloup eighteenth Emperor encyclical England Europe fact faith favour France French Revolution Germany Gregory XVI hierarchy Hitler Holy Infallibility Ireland Irish Italian Italy Jesuits King Kulturkampf L'Avenir Lamennais leaders Leo XIII liberal liberty Loisy Louis matter ment modern Modernist Montalembert movement Mussolini Napoleon natural nineteenth century organisation papacy Papal Paris peace persecution Piedmontese Pio Nono Pius IX Pius VII Pius XI political Pope Pope Pius XI Pope's popular priests Protestant Prussia recognise regime religion religious orders Republic Rerum Novarum restored revolutionary Roman Rome rulers Saint schools secular secularist seemed social Socialists society Spain spiritual Syllabus Syllabus of Errors teaching temporal tion traditional Tyrrell ultramontanes whole