Alexander: The Ambiguity of Greatness
For nearly two and a half millennia, Alexander the Great has loomed over history as a legend–and an enigma. Wounded repeatedly but always triumphant in battle, he conquered most of the known world, only to die mysteriously at the age of thirty-two. In his day he was revered as a god; in our day he has been reviled as a mass murderer, a tyrant as brutal as Stalin or Hitler.
Who was the man behind the mask of power? Why did Alexander embark on an unprecedented program of global domination? What accounted for his astonishing success on the battlefield? In this luminous new biography, the esteemed classical scholar and historian Guy MacLean Rogers sifts through thousands of years of history and myth to uncover the truth about this complex, ambiguous genius.
Ascending to the throne of Macedonia after the assassination of his father, King Philip II, Alexander discovered while barely out of his teens that he had an extraordinary talent and a boundless appetite for military conquest. A virtuoso of violence, he was gifted with an uncanny ability to visualize how a battle would unfold, coupled with devastating decisiveness in the field. Granicus, Issos, Gaugamela, Hydaspes–as the victories mounted, Alexander’s passion for conquest expanded from cities to countries to continents. When Persia, the greatest empire of his day, fell before him, he marched at once on India, intending to add it to his holdings.
As Rogers shows, Alexander’s military prowess only heightened his exuberant sexuality. Though his taste for multiple partners, both male and female, was tolerated, Alexander’s relatively enlightened treatment of women was nothing short of revolutionary. He outlawed rape, he placed intelligent women in positions of authority, and he chose his wives from among the peoples he conquered. Indeed, as Rogers argues, Alexander’s fascination with Persian culture, customs, and sexual practices may have led to his downfall, perhaps even to his death.
Alexander emerges as a charismatic and surprisingly modern figure–neither a messiah nor a genocidal butcher but one of the most imaginative and daring military tacticians of all time. Balanced and authoritative, this brilliant portrait brings Alexander to life as a man, without diminishing the power of the legend.
From the Hardcover edition.
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In the Footsteps of Dionysos
The Battle of the Hydaspes
The Mutiny at the Hyphasis River
The Meed of Great Deeds
Fulfillment of an Oracle
The Reign of Terror?
The Mutiny at Opis
The Battle of Issos
Master of Sieges
The Gift of the River
The Battle of Gaugamela
The Sack of Persepolis
The Death of Darius
The Massacre of the Branchidae
The End of the Revolts
Death in Babylon
Mass Murderer or Messiah?
Alexander and the Ambiguity of Greatness
Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Texts in Notes
Select Modern Bibliography
About the Author
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Alexander Alexander’s Alexander’s death Alexandria Amyntas ancient Antipater Aristobulus Arrian Asia assassination Athenian Athens attack Attalus Babylon Bactrian Badian barbarians battle of Gaugamela battle of Issos Bessus bodyguard Bosworth brought Bucephalas Callisthenes campaign captured chariots Cleitus Coenus commanded Companion cavalry conquered conquest Craterus crossing Curtius Darius Diodorus divine Ecbatana Egypt elephants enemy father fighting fleet force fought friends Gedrosia gods governor Granicus Greece Greek cities Greek mercenaries Hammond Harpalus Hephaestion Herakles Herodotus historians honor Hydaspes Hyphasis Indians Indus infantry Justin killed king’s Kuhrt later Macedon Macedonian Macedonian army Mallians marched military modern mounted murder Nearchus ofAlexander ofthe Olympias oracle pan-Hellenic Parmenio Pausanias Perdiccas perhaps Persepolis Persian cavalry Persian empire Persian king phalanx Philip Philotas Plutarch Porus prostration Ptolemy river rule sacrifice satrap Scythians sent siege Siwah Sogdiana soldiers Spitamenes story surrendered Susa tactical temple Thessalian told troops Tyre Tyrians victory warfare Zeus Ammon