A Town Called Monastir
Although Jews had lived in Monastir from Roman times, the Sephardic Jews, who originally migrated from the Iberian Peninsula in the fifteenth century, became the predominant group in the town by the sixteenth century. They maintained a highly traditional and distinctive lifestyle characterized by residence in a Jewish quarter, attachment to the Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) language and Sephardic folklore, commitment to Jewish religious observance, and allegiance to Jewish communal institutions including synagogues, religious schools, religious courts, and mutual aid societies. Between 1941 and 1944, Bulgaria, in alliance with Nazi Germany, occupied the Yugoslav province of Macedonia. On March 11, 1943, in cooperation with the Germans, Bulgarian military and police officials rounded up 3,276 of Monastir's Jewish men, women, and children, deported them to German-controlled territory and turned them over to the custody of German officials. The Germans transported the Jewish population of Monastir and environs to their deaths in Treblinka as part of their plan to murder all European Jews.
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City of Four Names
Out of Despair Comes Hope
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activities Albanian began Belgrade Bitol community Bulgarian Government camp centre certificates club Communal Council community of Bitol dinar elected Eretz Eretz-Israel Executive factory fate Federation of Yugoslavia German Greece Hashomer Hatzair Hatehiya Hebrew held Holocaust houses Israel Jewish Affairs Jewish community Jewish families Jewish National Fund Jewish Quarter Jewish youth Jews of Bitol Jews of Macedonia joined Josef Kamhi Kamhi family Keren Hayesod Ladino Land Land of Israel leader leadership Leon Kamhi Leon's living Macedonia managed March Matilda memorial ment Monastir Moshe Nazi Nissim parents persons police Rabbi Rabbi Romano reached Renaissance Rothmuller Rousso Sabbath Salonika Sephardic shekalim shekel Skopje south Serbia synagogue tion told took town train transport Treblinka Union of Jewish wagons young youngsters youth movement Yugo Yugoslav Zionist Zagreb Zhidov Zionist Congress Zionist Federation Zionist Movement Zionist organization Zionist youth