## Lunar Gravimetry: Revealing the Far-SideLunar Gravimetry: Revealing the Far-Side provides a thorough and detailed discussion of lunar gravity field research and applications, from the initial efforts of the pre-Apollo and Luna eras to the dedicated gravity mapping experiments of the third millennium. Analysis of the spatial variations of the gravity field of the Moon is a key selenodetic element in the understanding of the physics of the Moon's interior. Remarkably, more than forty years after the initial steps in lunar exploration by spacecraft, the global gravity field still remains largely unknown, due to the limitations of standard observations techniques. As such, knowledge of the high-accuracy and high-resolution gravity field is one of the remaining unsolved issues in lunar science. Lunar Gravimetry: Revealing the Far-Side addresses all users over lunar gravity information and covers a wide range of topics, including the scientific rationale for and history of gravimetric research; the fundamental ill-conditioning of the gravimetric problem; the prospects of sophisticated observation techniques, such as inter-satellite tracking and gravity gradient gradiometry; the role of regularisation schemes; and the crucial aspect of quality assessment of gravity field solutions. Also described are the first-ever efforts to model the gravity field of the Moon using European satellite tracking data sets. |

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### Contents

1 | |

Fundamentals of lunar gravity field recovery | 7 |

Assessment of modern lunar gravity field models through orbit analysis | 35 |

Illconditioning of the lunar gravimetric inverse problem | 79 |

ibration of selenopotential models | 131 |

Towards a global data set | 177 |

Epilogue 221 | 220 |

A Fundamentals of selenography | 231 |

B The generalised singular value decomposition GSVD | 239 |

253 | |

279 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

amplitude analysis Apollo Apollo 15 applications basin choice Clementine collocation components computation constraint correlated covariance crater data sets data weight degree and order degree-wise derived difference Earth far-side formal error frequency function GLGM-2 and LP75G global gravitational potential gravity anomalies gravity field model gravity field recovery gravity field solutions gravity models harmonic coefficients hence ill-posed ill-posed problems improvement inclination independent data inverse problem JLGM solutions Kaula Kaula rule Konopliv L-curve least squares libration linear lmax low-low SST lunar gravimetric lunar gravity field Lunar Orbiter Lunar Prospector mapping mascons methods mission mm/s Moon MSEM near-side normal equation normal matrix numerical observations optimal orbit determination orbit perturbations overall polar orbit priori radial orbit error range rate regularisation parameter residual rotation sampling satellite orbit selenographical selenoid height error selenophysical selenopotential selenopotential degree selenopotential model selenopotential solutions singular values spacecraft spherical harmonic tion tracking data variance-covariance matrix variations vector Weilheim