## Foundations of Complex-system Theories: In Economics, Evolutionary Biology, and Statistical PhysicsComplex behavior can occur in any system made up of large numbers of interacting constituents, be they atoms in a solid, cells in a living organism, or consumers in a national economy. Analysis of this behavior often involves making important assumptions and approximations, the exact nature of which vary from subject to subject. Foundations of Complex-system Theories begins with a description of the general features of complexity and then examines a range of important concepts, such as theories of composite systems, collective phenomena, emergent properties, and stochastic processes. Each topic is discussed with reference to the fields of statistical physics, evolutionary biology, and economics, thereby highlighting recurrent themes in the study of complex systems. This detailed yet nontechnical book will appeal to anyone who wants to know more about complex systems and their behavior. It will also be of great interest to specialists studying complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences. |

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### Contents

Theories of Composite Systems | 39 |

5 Deductive Construction of Small Systems | 46 |

6 Synthetic Microanalysis of Manybody Systems | 54 |

7 Idealizations Approximations Models | 67 |

8 Federal Versus Imperial Unity of Science | 72 |

9 Equilibrium and Optimization | 77 |

Individuals Constituents and Systems | 84 |

11 The Integrity of the Topic of Statistical Mechanics | 92 |

The Temporality of Dynamic Systems | 213 |

27 Processes and Time | 215 |

28 Past Present Future | 223 |

Complexity in the Temporal Dimension | 228 |

30 Stability Instability Bifurcation | 237 |

31 Chaos and Predictability | 242 |

32 Uniting Deterministic and Stochastic Concepts | 248 |

33 The Foundation of Statistical Mechanics | 255 |

12 The Unit of Evolution and the Unit of Selection | 99 |

13 Economic Individuals as Ideal Optimizers | 109 |

Situated Individuals and the Situation | 115 |

15 Single Particles in the Selfconsistent Field | 121 |

16 Price Takers in the Perfectly Competitive Market | 132 |

17 Fitness Adaptedness and the Environment | 140 |

Interacting Individuals and Collective Phenomena | 151 |

19 Collective Excitations and Their Coupling | 155 |

20 Strategic Competition and Industrial Organization | 160 |

21 Population Structure and the Evolution of Altruism | 167 |

Composite Individuals and Emergent Characters | 173 |

23 Selforganization in Phase Transitions | 183 |

24 Adaptive Organization of Biological Systems | 193 |

25 Inflation Unemployment and Their Microexplanations | 203 |

DYNAMICS | 211 |

34 Causality but Not Determinism | 259 |

Stochastic Processes and Their Explanations | 269 |

36 Deterministic and Stochastic Models of Business Cycles | 277 |

37 The Survival of the Fittest or the Luckiest? | 285 |

38 Causality and Randomness in Statistical Mechanics | 291 |

39 Probability but Not Tychism | 299 |

Directionality History Expectation | 313 |

41 Narratives and Theories in Natural History | 323 |

42 Dynamic Optimization Expectation Uncertainty | 334 |

Epilogue | 341 |

Notes | 347 |

379 | |

391 | |

395 | |

### Common terms and phrases

allele approximation argued atoms attractor behaviors called causal chaotic character type characterized commodity complex composite systems concepts constituents determined deterministic deterministic dynamics distribution dynamic rule economic economists effects electrons energy entities entropy equations equilibrium ergodic ergodic theory evolution evolutionary biology example explanation factors fitness framework function gene genotype global hydrodynamic idea independent independent-individual individuals initial conditions instance interaction kind kinetic laws macroeconomics macroscopic many-body system many-body theories mathematical microanalysis microexplanations microreductionism microstate space microstates models molecules motion natural selection objective optimization organisms parameters particles paths phase transition phenomena phenotype philosophers phonons physicists physics population genetics possible microstates prediction probabilistic probabilistic causation probability calculus problem quantum quantum mechanics random relations relative represented scale sciences scientific theories scientists sequence social species spins statistical mechanics stochastic process structure substantive symmetry synthetic temperature temporal theoretical thermodynamics tion tychism utility values variables various velocity