Translation as Mission: Bible Translation in the Modern Missionary Movement
For Christians from New Testament times on, the Bible has almost everywhere been a translated Bible. For eighteen centuries it was normally translated into new languages by native speakers, but with the beginning of the nineteenth century and the modern missionary movement came a burst of missionary translation around the world. As missionary churches were established and as societies worldwide were affected by the gospel, people studied the translations, preached from them, and recounted stories to their children. In many societies these translations were the foundation for Christian communities, for theology (including indigenous theologies), and a powerful stimulus to modernization and even secularization reaching beyond the Christian community.Smalley contends that the theological presuppositions of these missionary translators varied widely. He argues that some missionary translators were insightful scholars who probed deeply into the languages and cultures in which they were working; others were unable to transcend the perspective their own culture prescribed for them. Earlier missionaries did not always have a clearly formulated theory of translation or an understanding of what they were doing and why. Eventually, however, a theoretical model was developed, a model that the majority of translators (both missionary and nonmissionary) now use. Smalley maintains that the task of Bible translation is now passing out of the hands of missionaries and back into the hands of native speakers, casting the missionary translator into significantly changed roles in the translation process.
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The Bible Translator in the Communication Process
Translation and the Spread of the Church
Epochs in the Development of Bible Translation
The Accelerating Spread into New Languages
Priorities in Dynamic Equivalence Translation
Translation Strategy under Language Diversity
Selecting a Vernacular for Translation
Common Language Translation
Translation and Christian Community
Particularity and Universality through Translation
Unity and Division through Translation
Translation and Indigenous Theology
Missionaries Translators Scholars
William Carey and His Associates
The Translating Institutions
The Bible Societies
The Summer Institute of Linguistics
Theology in Translation
Theological Assumptions about Language
Theological Assumptions about Communication
Theological Assumptions about Translation
Theological Assumptions about the Bible
Theological Distortion in Translation
Dynamic Equivalence Translation
Formative Developments Leading toward Dynamic Equivalence
Some Fundamentals of Dynamic Equivalence Translation
Problems in Dynamic Equivalence Translation
Kinds of Meaning to be Translated
Translation Difficulties and Theological Development
Dynamics of Indigenous Theology
The Bible and Kitchen Theology
The Bible and LivingRoom Theology
The Bible and Written Indigenous Theology
Translation and Modernization
Modernizing Influences on Language
The Translated Book
Christians without the Translated Book
Distribution of the Translated Book
Use of the Translated Book
Translation Mission Past and Mission Future
Translation and Missionary SelfUnderstanding
The Future in NonMissionary Translation
Babel and Pentecost
accessible African African independent churches anthropological believe Bengali Bible translation Blaan Carey's Catholic century Chap CHAPTER Chinese Christ Christian church language church variety communication dialects discussion distortion dynamic equivalence translation English example faith God's gospel grammar Greek groups guage Hebrew hierarchy important India indigenous theology Institute of Linguistics international languages Jesus King James version language and culture Latin Leenhardt literacy literal translation Living Bible Lord major Maurice Leenhardt meaning missiological missiology mission missionary missionary translators Moab modern missionary movement native speakers Nida Old Testament original passage perspective print culture problems published reader receptor language Revised Standard Version role Roman script Scripture translation Septuagint Serampore sionary sometimes speak Summer Institute textual Thai theological assumptions tion traditional trans translated Bible translated book understanding United Bible Societies vernacular William Carey words writing system written
Page 13 - And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father...
Page 11 - He loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ (by grace ye are saved) and hath raised us up together and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus ; that in the ages to come He might shew the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.
Page 13 - He who comes after me ranks ahead of me because he was before me.'" From his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace. The law indeed was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father's heart, who has made him known.
Page 11 - ... lived in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest...
Page 11 - But God, who is rich in mercy, out of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ...
Page 11 - ... course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience...
Page 11 - Christ (by grace have ye been saved), and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places, in Christ Jesus: that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus : for by grace have ye been saved through faith ; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God ; not of works, that no man should glory.