Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine
Churchill Livingstone, 2002 - Medical - 449 pages
This reference provides guidance for the evaluation and treatment of cervical and thoracic problems. This third edition is revised and updated with current information from nationally recognized leaders in the field of spinal manipulation.
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abnormal activity analgesia articular assessment associated atlantoaxial axial rotation axis back pain biomechanical Bogduk cervical disc cervical manipulation cervical spine cervicogenic headache changes chronic Churchill Livingstone clinical reasoning clinicians compression costovertebral joint criteria diagnosis disorders dorsal dysfunction editor effect evaluation extensors facets factors Figure flexed flexion function glide hyperalgesia Impairments increased injury innervation intervertebral discs involved lateral flexion ligament lower cervical lumbar manual therapy manual therapy techniques mechanical medial ment mobilization motor movement muscles musculoskeletal neck flexors neck pain nerve root nervous system neural neurons normal occurs palpation passive patient patterns performed periaqueductal gray peripheral physical examination physical therapy position posterior pressure problem protocol range of motion referred pain region response result right rotation sagittal segments specific spinous process structures sympathetic symptomatic symptoms tension therapist thoracic spine thoracic vertebrae tion transverse process upper cervical upper limb vertebral artery vertebral column vical zygapophyseal joints