The Collapse of Complex Societies
Political disintegration is a persistent feature of world history. The Collapse of Complex Societies, though written by an archaeologist, will therefore strike a chord throughout the social sciences. Any explanation of societal collapse carries lessons not just for the study of ancient societies, but for the members of all such societies in both the present and future. Dr. Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory that accounts for collapse among diverse kinds of societies, evaluating his model and clarifying the processes of disintegration by detailed studies of the Roman, Mayan and Chacoan collapses.
What people are saying - Write a review
LibraryThing ReviewUser Review - ritaer - LibraryThing
Tainter examines several major cultures that show a rise in complexity and expansion in territory followed by a collapse and decline. Rome is, of course, a primary example, with Mayan culture, Chaco ... Read full review
I started reading this book with great anticipation and excitement. I disagree with most reviewers, however, on the "excellence" of this account based on two observations:
1) In several long sections, Tainter seems to confuse quantity with complexity. As I understand it complexity has to do with the network interrelationships that exist among components of a society (or anything else for that matter.) Often, though, the text reads as though growing any single component is equivalent to an increase in complexity. This is inconsistent at the least and erroneous at worst.
2) In discussion of science and technology, Tainter would have us believe that while the discoveries of Einstein and Darwin are examples of science at little expenditure, the consequent growth of activity in physics and biology illustrate that as progress is made at ever increased cost, the subsequent discoveries are of considerably less value than the revolutionary initial ones. According to what metric?
This I believe is simply careless thinking. Take the case of the transistor. I don't know the numbers but I don't think I need an economics training to realize that the investment in research that resulted in its invention is infinitesimal compared to the value to society in economic terms that ensued from this invention.
In summary, the terms are not clearly defined and then applied consistently, and in at least this one example the conclusions are far from convincing.
Introduction to collapse
The nature of complex societies
The study of collapse
the marginal productivity of sociopolitical change
Relationship of marginal and average product
Average returns of agriculture
Marginal returns of agriculture in India
Productivity of caloric intake for increasing life expectancy
Reductions in fuel consumption of steam engines resulting from increases in thermal efficiency
Marginal yield in a branch of science
The marginal product of increasing complexity
The marginal product of increasing complexity with technological innovation or acquisition of an energy subsidy
complexity and marginal returns in collapsing societies
The Roman Empire at the time of Hadrian
Debasement of the denarius from Nero to Septimius Severus
Patent applications and issues in respect to population and scientifictechnical personnel 18701950
Patent applications in respect to research inputs
Productivity of the U S health care system 193082
American expenditures on higher education 190060
Specialization in American education 18701960
Productivity of educational investment for the development of specialized expertise
British Admiralty statistics 191467
specialization 106 Overall economic productivity 108
Growth of GNP per capita
Emperors and pretenders from 235 to 285 A D
The Mayan area showing major subdivisions and selected sites
Construction of dated monuments at Classic Maya sites
Southern Lowland Mayan radiocarbon dates from elite contexts
San Juan Basin and surrounding terrain
TheChacoan regional system A D 10501175
Summary and implications