Tracking Strategies: Toward a General Theory

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OUP Oxford, Nov 8, 2007 - Business & Economics - 422 pages
There is a great deal of practice, discussion, and publication about strategy, but surprisingly little investigation of the processes by which strategies actually form in organizations. Henry Mintzberg, one of the world's leading thinkers and writers on management, has over several decades examined the processes by which strategies have formed in a variety of contexts, and this book collects together his findings. Defining realized strategy - the strategy an organization has actually pursued - as a pattern in a stream of actions, this investigation tracked strategies in organizations over long periods of time, usually three or four decades, and in one case, a century and a half. This revealed the patterns by which strategies form and change in organizations, the interplay of 'deliberate' with 'emergent' strategies, and the relationships between leadership, organization, and environment in the strategy formation process. An introductory chapter considers the term strategy, and the various ways it has been and can be used, and then introduces the studies. These are reported in the next ten chapters, with descriptions and conclusions about the strategies were formed over time, and how they combined to establish periods in the history of the organization. These studies range across business (six studies), government (two studies), an architectural firm, and a university, as well as one professor in that university. They include U.S. strategy in Vietnam (1950-1973), Volkswagenwrk (1937-1972), and the National Film Board of Canada (1939-1975). The final chapter, entitled 'Toward a General Theory of Strategy Formation', weaves these findings together in two themes. First is strategy formation in different forms of organization: Strategic Planning in the Machine Organization, Strategic Visioning in the Entrepreneurial Organization, Strategic Learning in the Adhocracy Organization, and Strategic Venturing in the Professional Organization. The second theme considers stages in the formation of strategies, from Initiation through Development to Renewal.

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The History of the Sherbrooke Record
A Conceptual Interpretation of Strategy Formation at the Sherbrooke Record
8Mirroring Canadian Industrial Policy
Strategies of Dominion Textile
Periods in the History of Dominion Textile
Conceptual Interpretation of Dominion Textiles History
9Strategy of Design
Job Strategies at Arcop

Four Processes of Strategy Formation
Tracking Strategies
The Studies Reported
History Lives
2Patterns in Strategy Formation
Period of US Strategy in Vietnam
Some General Conclusions about Strategy Formation
3Tracking Strategies in an Entrepreneurial Firm
The Strategies of Steinberg Inc 191774
4Strategy Formation in an Adhoracy
The National Film Board of Canada as an Adhocracy
Strategies of the NFB 193975
Periods in the NFB History
Experimentation and Evolution
A Conceptual Interpretation of Strategy Formation at the NFB
A Grassroots Model of Strategy Formation
5Into the Mind of the Strategist
The Strategies of Canadian Lady
Periods in the History of Canadian Lady
Some Conclusions about Strategy Formation
6Does Planning Impede Strategic Thinking?
New Destination Strategies
Government Relations Strategies
Strategic Periods in the History of Air Canada
A Conceptual Interpretation of Strategy Formation at Air Canada
7Tracking Strategies in the Birthplace of Canadian Tycoons
Strategies of the Sherbrooke Record
Environment and Results of the Sherbrooke Record
Organization Strategies at Arcop
Performance of Arcop
Arcops Industry
Periods in the History of Arcop
Interpreting the Study of Arcop in Conceptual Terms
10 Strategic Management Upside Down
McGill University
Structure and Governance
Where are the Strategies?
Where are the Strategic Periods?
Who are the Strategists?
What about the Environment?
Why Such Strategic Stability?
Rethinking Strategic Management
11The Illusive Strategy
Phases Over Time
A Conceptual Interpretation
12Toward a General Theory of Strategy Formation
Stages of Strategy Formation
Crafting Strategy
Determination of Strategy Patterns
Analysis of Each Major Period
Theory Building

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About the author (2007)

Henry Mintzberg is Cleghorn Professor of Management Studies at McGill University, and is the author of 13 books and about 150 articles, including ones that have won the highest academic and practitioner awards (best book for the year 2000 at the Academy of Management, for The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, and best article for the year 1975 in the Harvard Business Review, for 'The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact'). Tom Peters has referred to Dr. Mintzberg as "Perhaps the world's premier management thinker." He has held visiting appointments at the London Business School, INSEAD, HEC Montreal, and Carnegie-Mellon. Dr. Mintzberg has been elected an Officer of the Order of Canada, and makes his home in Montreal.

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