1956 Suez Crisis And The United Nations
The 1956 Suez Crisis is the first example of a pre-emptive strike after World War II. The episode provides lessons about the lengths to which nations will go to secure their interests and the limits of the United Nation’s influence. How the UN uses its power is the point of contention. In 1956, Great Britain, France, and Israel believed the organization would protect their security interests through the unbiased maintenance of international law. Yet, as common in the Cold War, UN action was hampered. A war began and ended with a cease-fire in fifty-five hours. Three militarily superior armies won their tactical fights but were strategically defeated. Most notably, the influence of global authority shifted to the superpowers. Through all this, the UN changed its mission and purpose. The primary question therefore is did the UN resolve the 1956 Suez Crisis? Resolution had to include a status quo ante bellum, the return to the existing system before the war, or the recognition of a new international Regime. The UN’s ability to resolve such crises directly affects its legitimacy in the international community.
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LITERATURE REVIEW 19
HISTORICAL SETTING 34
STRATEGIC ANALYSIS 48
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 63
REQUEST FROM THE PUBLISHER 69
1888 Convention 1956 Suez Crisis actors Algerian alliance allies American Anglo-French Anthony Anthony Eden Arab world armistice arms Article Aswan Dam attack bloc Britain and France casus belli cease-fire Charter Clausewitz 1976 collective security colonial communist Complex Elasticity Model conflict Convention of Constantinople D3 curve Dag Hammarskjold David Ben-Gurion dictator diplomatic Eden’s Egypt Egyptian Eisenhower enforce Europe European fedayeen fighting force Gamal Nasser global Integrated Elasticity Model international community international law international Regime Israel Israeli Kissinger 1994 Law of Disputes Leviathan Longgood mandate Middle East military million Mollet nation-state national interest Neff negotiations November October OIF Coalition Operation Kadesh Operation Musketeer parties peace political Port President R-curve Realpolitik Resolution 118 Resolution 997 Sadat Security Council Selwyn Lloyd Sinai Soviet Union Strategic Interests Suez Canal Company Suez Crisis terrorist threat UN Charter UN’s UNEF unilateral United Nations veto violated vote West Western wrote